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1PERCEPTION OF BRIDE PRICE ON MARITAL STABILITY AMONG THE TIV PEOPLE OF MAKURDI DIOCESE, NIGERIABride price and marital stabilityThe focus of the thesis is on the perception of bride price on marital stability among the Tiv people of Makurdi Diocese. This hinged on the idea that there is a persistent escalation of bride price with its associated repercussion on marriages in Tiv land. The specific objectives are, to investigate the perception towards bride price among married men and women in Makurdi diocese; to investigate the relationship between bride price and marital stability among married men and women in Makurdi diocese; to examine the role of culture on bride price among married men and women in Makurdi diocese; to explore the spiritual dimensions of bride price among married men and women in Makurdi diocese; to examine the psycho-spiritual coping strategies that can be utilized to enhance marriage among married men and women in Makurdi diocese. The study was grounded on Bowen’s family theory of multi-generational transmission therapy. Based on this theory, this study used mixed methods sequential explanatory design. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data and interviews were used for qualitative data. The target population were 1506 married couples. A sample size of 316 married men and women were obtained using simple random and purposive sampling techniques respectively. Qualitative data obtained from 6 counsellors were analysed using thematic analysis while the quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Reliabilities of questionnaires were ascertained by the Cronbach’s Alpha method with coefficients (r) as follows: BPQ = 0.704; MSQ = 0.703. The findings negated that bride price affects marital stability and highlighted some challenges associated with bride price payment such as the level of education, level of awareness of the customs of the bride and also the need for married couples to always embrace counselling, dialogue before, during and after marriage, intensify their prayer life to enhance their relationship with God and others. Bishops and priests should intensify efforts in the adequate preparation of couples during marriage course, and a call of the Tiv traditional council for the review of bride price.ALPHONSUS TERSEER UTUME Download
2PASTORAL MINISTRY AND EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION: ASSESSMENT AMONG PRIESTS IN THE CATHOLIC DIOCESE OF MURANG’A-KENYAEmotional exhaustion of priestsBeing a catholic priest can be a very satisfying ministry. This role can also become burdensome one full of stress and hopelessness sometimes leading to negative physical and mental health outcomes. One of the alarming challenges facing many priests is burnout a state of emotional exhaustion related to service and unhealthy working associated lifestyles. Guided by Francis burnout theory and employing mixed- research method, concurrent triangulation, approach, this study collected data from a target population of 122 diocesan priests in the Catholic Diocese of Murang’a- Kenya and assessed emotional exhaustion prevalence due to pastoral ministry, risk factors and the coping strategies among these diocesan priests. The study also explored emotional exhaustion coping strategies. Francis burnout inventory questionnaire and modified interview guide, and adopted Lima Dias’s validated questionnaire data collection instruments were administered to the target population sampled through simple random and purposive judgment techniques. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson product moment coefficient and thematic analysis. The study found out that emotional exhaustion among the diocesan clergy was high. However their lever of occupational satisfaction was also high. This scenario led to the recommendation that if these pastoral agents exercised psycho-spiritual coping strategies like self care and regular spiritual direction their level of burnout would be reduced.CYPRIAN IRUNGU MWANGI Download
3INFLUENCE OF PERSONALITY TYPES ON INTER PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE CATHOLIC DIOCESAN CLERGY OF BAUCHI DIOCESE, NIGERIAInterpersonal relationships among the clergyAn interpersonal relationship is a strong bond between two or more people. This study explored the influence of personality types on interpersonal relationships among the catholic Diocesan clergy of Bauchi and Shendam Dioceses, Nigeria. The research objectives are: to explore the relationships between openness to experience of personality types on interpersonal relationships, to examine sociocultural differences in interpersonal relationships, to expound the effect of the spiritual aspect on interpersonal relationships, to examine the effect of agreeableness personality type on interpersonal relationships, to develop psycho-spiritual interventions for interpersonal problems. The researcher used Concurrent mixed method design. The target population was 95 Priests, Bauchi has 43 priests while Shendam has 52 priests. The study sampled 46 participants from Bauchi and Shendam Dioceses. The researcher using saturated sampling selected 40 assistant parish priests for questionnaires and purposive sampling for 6 parish priests for interviews. Qualitative data were transcribed and analyzed by using a thematic framework, while quantitative data was analyzed using both descriptive statistics using frequencies and percentages. The study established that personality types influence interpersonal relationships. The relationships between openness to experience on interpersonal relationships showed that priests do come up with new ideas, emotionally stable, not easily upset, helpful, and unselfish with others. More so, the sociocultural environment also plays a vital role in establishing interpersonal relationships among priests, such as having a forgiving attitude towards one another. The study revealed that most of the priests had cordial relationships with their fellow priests. In terms of intervention, most priests established that counselling, seminars, workshops on personality types, and also self-awareness should be part and parcel of the Diocesan policy.CYRIL EMMANUEL SHUAIBU Download
4RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGIOSITY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLBEING AMONG ROMAN CATHOLIC LAY FAITHFUL IN IBADAN ARCHDIOCESE, NIGERIAReligiosity and psychological well being of Catholic Lay faithfulsAll over the world, the idea of Roman Catholics frequenting catholic churches to attend mass and other church programs is an age long event that has stood the test of time. Till date Roman Catholics are still seen to be devoted to the attendance of mass and other church programs. One may be tempted to assume that the mass and other church programs, with all these senses of devotion attached must be giving Catholics some sense of psychological wellbeing. However, a critical look at the relationship between this visible devotion of Catholics and the supposed psychological wellbeing it is supposed to bring about, raises a question whether this visible religiosity brings about psychosocial wellbeing or not. To this effect, this research looked at the relationship between religiosity and psychosocial wellbeing of Roman Catholic lay faithful in Ibadan archdiocese, Nigeria. This research had the following objectives: to examine the psychological wellbeing of Roman catholic lay faithful in Ibadan archdiocese; to investigate the religiosity of Roman catholic lay faithful in Ibadan archdiocese; to examine the relationship between religiosity and psychological wellbeing among Roman catholic lay faithful in Ibadan archdiocese; to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors on the relationship between religiosity and psychological wellbeing; to examine the relationship between Psycho-spiritual integration and psychological wellbeing among Roman catholic lay faithful in Ibadan archdiocese. The study used correlational research design and the research instruments were psychological wellbeing scale and religiosity scale. The sample size was 383 participants of the Roman catholic lay faithful of Ibadan Archdiocese. Simple random sampling was used to identify participants. The findings revealed that women are more active in religious activities than men. The result also indicated a strong positive correlation between religiosity and psychological wellbeing in that those who are religious tend to be less anxious in moments of challenges as they tend to surrender their problems to God. Though the satisfaction they experience in their religious belief is sometimes a temporary one in that when the problem they face persist they start being troubled, doubtful and anxiety and depression tend to come in, hence, a need for a counselor to journey with. The findings of the study will be of great value to the Bishop, priests and lay faithful of the catholic archdiocese of Ibadan, and the Catholic Church in promoting good religious and psychological wellbeing among the lay faithful.UGWOEGBU EKENEDILICHUKWU UGOCHUKWU Download
5Alcohol abuse and psycho-spiritual wellbeing of priestsPriests Alcohol abuse and psycho-spiritual well-beingAlcohol abuse has crept into the life of some pastoral agents in Kaduna Archdiocese of Nigeria to the point of becoming a problem to their wellbeing. The purpose of this research work is to bring out some of the effects of alcohol abuse on the psycho-spiritual well-being of pastoral agents working in the Catholic Archdiocese of Kaduna. The research was anchored on two theories namely: disease theory of alcoholism by Morton Jellinek and the behavioural theory by Burrhus Frederic Skinner. These theories will be of great importance to the study because they proffer great insight on the subject matter and a possible way of coming out of such addiction. The research work was guided by five objectives: to have an understanding of what alcohol abuse is; to expound the effects of alcohol addiction on the psychological life of the pastoral agents of Kaduna Archdiocese; to examine how the spiritual life of these pastoral agents is affected by alcohol abuse; to investigate how culture influence the use of alcohol and to explore some psycho-spiritual approaches that could be used to help some of the pastoral agents come out of this addiction. The research used concurrent nested design within the mixed methods. The target population was 330 participants comprising of the clergy, religious, seminarians and catechists in Kaduna Archdiocese. The researcher employed the stratified random sampling method to recruit 181 pastoral agents as the sample size. The researcher adopted a standardized questionnaire to collect quantitative data and interview guide to collect qualitative data. Quantitative data was analysed using Pearson correlation analysis, while qualitative data was analyse using thematic method of analysis. The finding of the study rejected the correlation between the abuse of alcohol and the psycho-spiritual wellbeing of pastoral agents of Kaduna Archdiocese. It also highlighted some of the ways culture plays a rule in the abuse of alcohol and proffered psycho-spiritual ways of helping the pastoral agents who are mostly under the of medium level of dependence on alcoholATUNGS, GEORGE Download
19EFFECTS OF SMARTPHONE ADDICTION ON THE PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL WELL-BEING OF CATHOLIC YOUTH IN HOLY CROSS PARISH, GWARINPA, ABUJA - NIGERIASmartphone addiction and the psycho-spiritual well-being of Catholic Youth in NigeriaThe popularity of smartphones can be said to be due to the multiple functionalities they offer, hence the almost irresistible urge to continue using the smartphone, despite consequences for one’s overall wellbeing. Youth are particularly more vulnerable since they constitute the most adept generation of smartphone users. Thus, this research examined the effects of smartphone addiction on the psycho-spiritual wellbeing of Catholic youth in Holy Cross Parish, Gwarinpa, Abuja-Nigeria. This was carried out based on the following objectives: to assess the prevalence of smartphone addiction among catholic youth in Holy Cross Parish, Gwarinpa; to establish the factors responsible for smartphone addiction among these youth; to investigate the effects of smartphone addiction on the youth’s psychological and spiritual wellbeing. The theoretical framework for this research was Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The research used a correlational design in order to ascertain the effects of smartphone addiction on the psycho-spiritual wellbeing of Catholic youth in Holy Cross Parish, Gwarinpa Abuja, Nigeria. The target population was 351 Catholic Youth of Holy Cross Parish, Gwarinpa Abuja, Nigeria, out of which 187 were selected as the sample size by means of the simple random sampling method. The researcher adopted the standardized Smartphone Addiction Scale (Short Version), the Psychological Wellbeing Scale (Short Version), and the Spiritual Wellbeing Scale (Short Version) to collect quantitative data. These were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 21, using two-tailed Pearson’s correlation. The findings revealed that there is a 51.7% prevalence of smartphone addiction among the Catholic youth of Holy Cross parish Gwarinpa. More so, the Pearson’s correlation of r=0.342 and r=0.313 at p<0.01 showed that smartphone addiction has some moderate effects on the psycho-spiritual wellbeing of the Catholic youth of Holy Cross parish Gwarinpa. The researcher recommended some biopsychosociotechno-spiritual interventions for curbing the menace, such as the use of drugs, therapy, improved social interaction, reconfiguration of smartphones, and spiritual exercises like mindfulness, meditation, yoga, and nature therapy.MAGAJI, CEPHAS NYAMAAI Download
6INFLUENCE OF MEDITATION ON WELLBEING OF CATHOLIC RELIGIOUS WOMEN IN KAREN, NAIROBI, KENYAMeditation and the well-being of Catholic Religious WomenThe study established the influence of meditation on well-being of Catholic Religious women in Karen, Nairobi-Kenya. Four objectives guided the study: Explored the personal meditation experience of the Sisters; examined the influence of meditation on the wellbeing of sisters, examined the influence of culture on meditation of sisters and discussed how meditation and other interventions can enhance spiritual life of sisters. The research adopted the Embedded Mixed method design with descriptive method of Quantitative research and Qualitative research method. The target population was 340 Catholic Religious women of different Congregations living in Karen Nairobi. The stratified sampling technique was used to select the sample size of 184 Religious women from different Congregations. Questionnaires and interview guide were used to collect data. The mindful Attention scale and wellbeing scales were the instruments used to collect the quantitative data while semi-structured interview generated the qualitative data. Content validity was used to validate the instruments and Test-Retest reliability (Cronbach’s alpha of the scales) was used to ascertain the reliability of the questionnaire. The steps that were taken to ensure the validity and trustworthiness of the study included the strict supervision of the research process by the supervisors. The quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics while the qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. The religious women in Karen enjoyed meditation and expressed their meditation experience as wonderful, a time they encounter God, have a conversation with him, deep sense of relief and understand more about God’s love and themself and their mission. Meditation has a positive impact on religious women in Karen spiritual life as it helps them solve issues, relate well with God, others and themselves. It also has a positive impact on their physical wellbeing, for they feel peaceful, experience physical healing, are freed from fear, learn patience and sleep well. On their emotional wellbeing meditation helps them get detached from negative feelings, be relieved from stress and feel comfort.HELEN ELEH EGBERI Download
7EFFECTS OF NON-CONTINUITY OF SPIRITUAL DIRECTION ON PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING OF MALE AND FEMALE RELIGIOUS IN THE CATHOLIC ARCHDIOCESE OF LILONGWE, MALAWI NON-CONTINUITY OF SPIRITUAL DIRECTION ON PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING OF MALE AND FEMALE Every male and female religious needs Spiritual Direction. However, this important aspect of life is neglected after ordination and final vows. The purpose of this study is therefore to establish the effects of non-continuity of spiritual direction on psychosocial well-being of male and female religious in the Catholic Archdiocese of Lilongwe, Malawi. The study is guided by the following objectives: To investigate the continuity of spiritual direction among male and female religious; To establish the effect of non-continuity of spiritual direction on addictive behaviour among male and female religious; To examine how non-continuation of spiritual direction leads to burnout among male and female religious; To ascertain the effect of non-continuity of spiritual direction on the self-care of male and female religious; To establish the influence of gender, age, culture and level of education on non-continuation of spiritual direction among male and female religious in the Archdiocese of Lilongwe, Malawi. This study is grounded on James Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development Model and Well-being Theory. It adopted mixed methods where qualitative and quantitative methods were used concurrently and therefore questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data. The sample size was 60 participants purposively drawn from a population of 135 male and female religious in Lilongwe Archdiocese, Malawi. The study revealed that spiritual direction is generally neglected and is only considered during the time of crisis and therefore the men and women religious are in dire need of spiritual guidance. HERMES PAONONGA SAC Download
8RECONCILIATION ON PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL- BEING AFTER GENOCIDE AGAINST TUSTI IN MUSHAKA PARISH IN RWANDAPSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING AFTER GENOCIDE Reconciliation has become a high-level concern for countries emerging from intrastate armed conflict as well as for international development assistance in post-conflict societies. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of reconciliation on psychosocial well-being after genocide against Tusti. The study was guided by the truth theory. The research used qualitative design, Phenomenology approach to show how reconciliation was used to deal with psychosocial problems after genocide in Mushaka parish. The objectives of this study were: to examine the experiences that Mushaka people had gone through before the project of reconciliation; to determine the challenges encountered during reconciliation among the Christians in Mushaka Parish; to explore strategies that they used to promote reconciliation and the state of psychosocial well-being, and to expand the role of counseling for effective reconciliation and to promote healing through reconciliation. Qualitative approach has been used to gather information from both genocide perpetrators and survivors. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 5 survivors; 5 perpetrators and 4 priests from the target population of 480 participants from Mushaka parish. Data were collected using focus group discussion and interview to both groups of survivors and perpetrators, and interview guide for Priests. Using thematic analysis the researcher analyzed the findings. The findings showed that there was poor reconciliation among survivors and perpetrators in Mushaka parish before Mushaka reconciliation project. Reconciliation process was challenged by lack of telling truth to both sides, lack of the trained mediators or counselors, fear, and mistrust. The suspension over the sacraments in order to promote Gacaga Nkirisitu was one of the strategies used to reconcile the Mushaka people. The other strategy was to gather both survivors and perpetrators to discuss their differences, charity works, and solidarity fund. True reconciliation needed the counseling sessions in order to be effective and open up. This study recommends the collaboration of all institutions and recognition of the role of psycho-spiritual counseling to promote reconciliation PAULIN HABIMANA Download
9 FACEBOOK USAGE AND THE PSYCHOSOCIAL WELLBEING OF STUDENTS OF THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF CAMEROON, BAMENDA FACEBOOK USAGE AND THE PSYCHOSOCIAL WELLBEING OF STUDENTS This research set out to explore the outcome of Facebook usage on the psychosocial well-being of students of the Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda. The social comparison theory was used to inform the study. The objectives of this research were: to explore how the content students upload on Facebook affect their identity construction; how comments on Facebook influence the spirit of comparison among students; how passive Facebook usage influence the emotions of students; secondly, to examine how Facebook usage affect the cultural, spiritual and psychosocial life of students. The research design was qualitative in nature and phenomenological approach. The target population was 417, and the sample size was 24 participants. They were selected by simple random and purposive sampling. The instrument for data collection was: focus group guide and interview guide. Data analysis was done using narrative themes drawn from the objectives. The findings at the end of the research were that the use of Facebook could significantly affect the psychosocial wellbeing of students and it was envisaged that students would realise how to use Facebook and social media creatively and responsibly in order to benefit from its possibilities. PETER FOLENG Download
10THE ROLE OF PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL COUNSELING IN THE CARE OF THE TERMINALLY ILL PATIENTS AND CAREGIVERS IN ESHOWE AREA, SOUTH AFRICAPSYCHO-SPIRITUAL COUNSELING AND CARE OF THE TERMINALLY ILL PATIENTS AND CAREGIVERSTerminally ill people often have complex physical, spiritual, and psychological needs. As an outcome, their caregivers may experience high levels of burden and some caregivers are unable to cope with the burden. Therefore, this study explored the role of psycho-spiritual counseling in the care of terminally ill patients and caregivers in the Eshowe Area, South Africa. Logotherapy theory was applied to draw theoretical constructs to explain human health and behavior. The study was guided by the following objectives: to examine the role of psycho-spiritual counseling, to explore the experience of the terminally ill patients and caregivers, to investigate the influence of culture on psycho-spiritual counseling, and to establish interventions mechanisms that will benefit the terminally ill patients and caregivers in Eshowe Area, South Africa. A case study research design was selected to provide a roadmap/plan for the research and this scientific study used a sequential explanatory mixed-method design. The target population was 24 participants from Eshowe Area in South Africa. A purposive technique was applied to collect data from all participants in a defined sampled size and this includes 5 terminally ill patients and 15 caregivers, 2 counselors, and 2 social workers. The study applied an interview guide for terminally ill and counselors and a questionnaire for caregivers and social workers. Moreover, descriptive statistics were applied to analyze quantitative data and thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The collected data revealed that psycho-spiritual counseling/therapy boosts a patient’s emotional wellness and enables terminally ill patients to cope with intense emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt. In addition, the study found that terminally ill patients experienced social, psychological, spiritual, and physical challenges, which in turn affects their quality of life, meaning that patients with terminal illness have poor coping mechanisms to illness. The study established that cultural considerations should be incorporated in the counseling sessions since culture is a critical predictor of positive psycho-spiritual outcomes.XOLANI NDABA Download
11THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL FORMATION ON VOCATIONAL COMMITMENT OF SEMINARIANS IN NSUKKA DIOCESE, NIGERIAPSYCHO-SPIRITUAL FORMATION ON VOCATIONAL COMMITMENT The increasingly reported cases of priestly scandals seem to be an indication of an ineffective priestly formation. As a result, the present study explored the influence of psycho-spiritual formation on vocational commitment of seminarians in Nsukka Diocese, Nigeria. The study was guided by the following objectives: To assess how psychological, spiritual, intellectual, demographic characteristics affect vocational commitment of seminarians. It was grounded on the Positive Psychology Theory and adopted phenomenological mixed method research approach for the qualitative data and descriptive survey design for the quantitative data. The target population was 228. Both purposive and simple random sampling methods were used to come up with the desired sample. The participants comprised of 134 major Seminarians and 9 major seminary formators drawn from 4 seminaries. Data was collected using both questionnaires and interview schedules. Quantitative data from the close-ended items in the questionnaires was analyzed using both inferential statistics and descriptive statistics. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis where major themes were formulated. The study revealed that the curriculum was responsive to the psychological, spiritual and intellectual needs of the seminarians. Demographic characteristics of age and education were found to have some moderate influence on the vocational commitment whereas both cultural and social economical background were found to have no significant influence. This study recommends that seminary authorities, seminarians and bishops have an obligation to ensure that the training of seminarians embraces psycho-spirituality that is ideal in helping the seminarians cope with new and emerging societal concerns.JOHN PAUL NWACHUKWU Download
12THE INFLUENCE OF FACEBOOK AND WHATSAPP ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN AKURE SOUTH, ONDO STATE, NIGERIAINFLUENCE OF FACEBOOK AND WHATSAPP ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCEThis study investigated the influence of Facebook and WhatsApp on academic performance of secondary school students in Akure South, Ondo State, Nigeria; with the following objectives: to investigate the perceived effects of Facebook and WhatsApp on academic performance of the students; to determine the influence of Facebook and WhatsApp sites on their academic performance; to explore the possible psycho-spiritual strategies to be used to address the negative influence on academic performance of the students. The study employed a concurrent triangulation mixed method research survey in its data collection process. The target population consisted of 800 students of a public secondary school. The sample size consisted of 410 students out of which 373 were randomly selected for the study. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires, interview guides and document analysis. Quantitative data was analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to analyze the quantitative data, and presented in form of frequencies and percentages while the qualitative used thematic analysis on the interview conducted on the respondents. Findings shows that students are using social networking sites at regular interval which in turn affects their studies. Negative impact is more than positive effect on the students, this revealed that social networking sites have negative influence on the academic performance of the students. The researcher recommends that parents, guardians, teachers, counsellors, and the society should be role models, and be at alert as to the dangers posed by Facebook and WhatsApp to the educational performance of the students, constant monitoring, as well as frequent workshops should be given on time management, and expose them to the negative influence of the social networking sites.DORIS OLOSENGBUHAN DAVID Download
14PREVENTING SOCIAL MEDIA ADDICTION AMONG ADOLESCENTS USING DON BOSCO PREVENTIVE SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN OYSTERBAY AND UPANGA AREAS OF DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIAPREVENTING SOCIAL MEDIA ADDICTION AMONG ADOLESCENTSAddiction can be described as a compulsive craving for something in spite of its negative consequences. Reality has shown today that the notion of addiction has been expanded to include some compulsive behaviours such as gambling, shopping, workaholic, watching pornography, overeating, sex, physical exercise, computer game playing, social media, pair bonding, and wealth acquisition. This study investigated the addiction level among adolescents who have experienced the preventive system of education of Don Bosco compared with those who do not. The key research question guiding this study was: What are the experiences of addiction to social media among the adolescents in Oyster Bay and Upanga area of Dar Es Salaam? This research question is captured in the null hypothesis: there is no significant difference between the level of addiction among adolescents who have access to Don Bosco Preventive System of education and those who do not. Bandura’s social learning and Social cognitive theories inform this study in terms of providing the theoretical lens through which social media addiction is explored and understood as a learnt behaviour which can also be unlearnt given the right environment. The study employed a concurrent triangulation mixed research method in its data collection process using Kimberly Young’s 20-item standardized internet questionnaire to collect quantitative data as well as conducting a focus group discussion to obtain qualitative data. A pilot study was conducted to enable the researcher identify the shortfalls in the instruments such as ambiguity, unclear directions, clustered questions, insufficient space for responses, wrong numbering and spellings among other mistakes. The Cronbach’s Alpha test for the questionnaire shows a result of 0.98 to certify the reliability coefficient of the questionnaire. The sample size was 100 respondents, 25 each from both Upanga and Oysterbay youth centres while there were other 25 respondents each from the playgrounds in Upanga and Oysterbay. The data analysis was done using independent T-test analysis to explore if there were significant difference between the participants’ levels of social media addiction and also using thematic analysis to present the qualitative data exploring the in-depth meaning the participants make out of their lived experience of social media addition. The findings of this study show that Don Bosco adolescents showed lower level of addiction to social media in comparison to Non-Don Bosco adolescents. On average, Don Bosco adolescents scored less in the experience of social media addiction. Equally, Non-Don Bosco adolescents showed low level of interpersonal relationship among their peers. This study recommends as follows: That the Preventive system of education be acknowledged as a psycho-spiritual model of education, facilitating aspects of character formation and development. That parents, teachers, and all those saddled with the task of educating the adolescents whenever possible should incorporate the preventive system of education as part of the model for educating the adolescents and finally that the education ministry in Tanzania as a body adopts the preventive system of education into its educational policy.  ADETILOYE MATTHEW KAYODE Download
15EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE ON BEHAVIOUR OF THE YOUTH IN LANG’ATA SUB-COUNTY, KENYA: IMPLICATION FOR PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL THERAPYEFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE ON BEHAVIOUR OF THE YOUTH There have been numerous cases of alcohol abuse among the youth in Lang’ata Sub-County of Kenya. The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of alcohol abuse on youth’s behaviour. The study was guided by the following objectives: To determine the effects of alcohol on psychological Behaviour of youth in Lang’ata Sub-County, Kenya; To examine the effects of alcohol on social behaviour of youth in Lang’ata Sub-County, Kenya; To find out the effects of alcohol on moral behaviour of youth in Lang’ata Sub-County, Kenya; To explore the psycho-spiritual interventions that could be used to help the youth in Lang’ata Sub-County, Kenya. The study was grounded on three theories namely: Problem Behaviour Theory, Disease Alcohol Theory and The Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change. These theories were necessary as they created deeper understanding of the problem of alcoholism in the society. The Concurrent triangulation design was used in the study. The target population was 152 which was made up of 18 counsellors, 3 facilitators and 31 alcohol addicts in three rehabilitation centres within Lang’ata Sub-County, Nairobi County that were purposively selected. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data while interview guides were used to gather qualitative data. Validity was assured by expert judgment while reliability was ensured by piloting. The study established that alcohol has adverse effects on psychological, moral and social behaviour of youth. Psychologically, alcohol was found to impair judgments. Socially, alcohol was found to make people more social and sometimes abusive. Morally, alcohol was found to cause degeneration of moral values. Psycho-Spiritual counselors were also found to have the ability to offer holistic health to the alcoholics as both spirituality and psychology are needed in the recovery process. The study recommends that all stakeholders such as the youth alcoholics, counselors and policy makers and the government have an important role to play in addressing the problem of alcoholism by learning more about alcoholism to be able not only to prevent but also to heal the effected victims. MARGARET THERESE KIUMA Download
16MISSIONING AND JOB SATISFACTION OF CATHOLIC RELIGIOUS SISTERS IN KAREN, NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA: IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONMISSIONING AND JOB SATISFACTION, IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONCatholic religious sisters are missioned to various apostolates by their superiors, which the Church describes as mission. The sisters could be assigned to a variety of mission fields depending on the congregational charism in line with the sisters’ professional skills and/or ability. Ideally, the superiors are meant to consult/dialogue with the sisters to ensure that missioning arises as a result of shared responsibility. This study targeted Catholic religious sisters in Karen, Nairobi County, Kenya. The main aim was to explore if the sisters in their lived reality of religious life have experienced consultation, which ought to facilitate their sense of job satisfaction as God’s happy workers. Four research objectives guided the study as follows: to find out how the sisters experience mission, to examine sisters’ experiences of consultation in relation to mission, to investigate the impact of mission on the sisters’ job satisfaction, and to evaluate the role of psycho-spiritual intervention for animating consultation process. Phenomenological approach of qualitative method was used in the study. A purposive sample of 22 Catholic religious sisters was used. Data were collected using interview and focus group discussion guide. The findings showed that consultation impacted positively on job satisfaction of the sisters. Therefore, the study recommends that leaders of religious life (including policy makers) make more concrete effort to consult/dialogue with the sisters before sending them on mission. Seminars/workshops should also be conducted as means of psycho-spiritual intervention to assist the superiors and the sisters interact with each other in a more holistic manner. ADEGUN CELINA OMOLOLA, SSMA Download
17PASTORAL MINISTRY AND EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION: ASSESSMENT AMONG PRIESTS IN THE CATHOLIC DIOCESE OF MURANG’A-KENYAPASTORAL MINISTRY AND EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTIONBeing a catholic priest can be a very satisfying ministry. This role can also become burdensome one full of stress and hopelessness sometimes leading to negative physical and mental health outcomes. One of the alarming challenges facing many priests is burnout a state of emotional exhaustion related to service and unhealthy working associated lifestyles. Guided by Francis burnout theory and employing mixed- research method, concurrent triangulation, approach, this study collected data from a target population of 122 diocesan priests in the Catholic Diocese of Murang’a- Kenya and assessed emotional exhaustion prevalence due to pastoral ministry, risk factors and the coping strategies among these diocesan priests. The study also explored emotional exhaustion coping strategies. Francis burnout inventory questionnaire and modified interview guide, and adopted Lima Dias’s validated questionnaire data collection instruments were administered to the target population sampled through simple random and purposive judgment techniques. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson product moment coefficient and thematic analysis. The study found out that emotional exhaustion among the diocesan clergy was high. However their lever of occupational satisfaction was also high. This scenario led to the recommendation that if these pastoral agents exercised psycho-spiritual coping strategies like self care and regular spiritual direction their level of burnout would be reduced.CYPRIAN IRUNGU MWANGI Download
18RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMUNAL VIOLENCE AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG THE AGATU PEOPLE OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INVESTIGATIONCOMMUNAL VIOLENCE AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a universal phenomenon that affects many people today especially in violent and conflict-ridden situations. This study investigated PTSD among the Agatu people of Benue State, Nigeria, who have been under attack from suspected Fulani herdsmen. The main objective of this study was to establish the relationship between communal violence and PTSD among the Agatu people. The study also investigated suitable psycho-spiritual interventions to mitigate PTSD. To achieve these, a descriptive research design was utilized and a quantitative research methodology was adopted. The target population was 16,000 people from four (4) villages in Agatu, namely, Aila, Egba, Enungba and Oshigbudu, who experienced the violence. A purposive random sampling procedure was used to engage 388 participants. The PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and the Brief-COPE were used to assess PTSD and available coping strategies. The data generated was computed using the statistical programme for social sciences (SPSS), version 21. To test the hypotheses of this study, a chi-square test was conducted to establish the relationship of association, a linear regression was used to examine the cause and effect relationship, and a bivariate correlation test and partial correlation test were carried out to assess the strength and direction of the relationship between the variables. A descriptive statistics was used to determine the suitable psycho-spiritual interventions needed. The findings indicated a significant relationship between communal violence and PTSD in Agatu at p ≤ .001. It further revealed a 51.4% PTSD prevalence rate in Agatu and positive coping strategies proved adequate to mitigate PTSD. Consequently, mindfulness based cognitive therapy and personal resilience development were recommended as psycho-spiritual interventions to ameliorate the situation. DENIS ENENCHE UJAH Download
20EFFECTS OF WAR ON THE PSYCHO-SOCIAL WELLBEING OF THE YOUTH IN ADJUMANI-MAAJI III REFUGEE CAMP, ARUA DIOCESE-UGANDA A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL APPROACHEFFECTS OF WAR, THE PSYCHOSOCIAL WELLBEING OF THE YOUTH The refugee-issue that is triggered, among others, by war situation, persecutions and natural disasters, is a significant problem, not only in Africa, but all over the world. This study investigated the effects of war on the psycho-social wellbeing of the youth in Adjumani-Maaji III refugees’ Camp, Arua Diocese, Uganda. The study objectives were: To examine the effects of war on the psychological wellbeing of the youth in Adjumani-Maaji III refugees’ camp in Uganda; to investigate the effects of war on the social wellbeing of the youth in Adjumani Maaji III refugees’ camp in Uganda; to explore what coping strategies were being used by the youth in handling the effects of war in Uganda and to find out what psycho-spiritual approach was used to support the youth in Adjumani Maaji III refugees’ camp in Uganda. The Self-affirmation Theory and Rational Emotive Behavior Theory (REBT) informed the study. The study applied a qualitative-phenomenological research design. The target population was the 150 youth living in the Adjumani-Maaji III refugees camp. The sample size was comprised of 49 participants: Twenty five for the Interview Guide and 24 for Focus Group Discussion selected using a simple random sampling technique. The qualitative validity of the instrument was censored by the expert judgment of the academic supervisors aligned to the Psycho-Spiritual Institute. While the qualitative reliability was ensured by the trustworthiness of the qualitative data. The qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings of the study were presented in form of themes and verbatim. According to the findings, the effects of war on the psycho-social wellbeing of the youth in Adjumani Maaji III refugees’ camp included: Depression, disappointment, mental confusion, loss of hope, fear, anger, post-traumatic stress disorder, school-dropout, socio-economic impoverishment, family disintegration, displacement, loss of lives and properties and moral decadence. The study also found that the youth implicitly adopted bibliotherapy, forgiveness, and reconciliation, strong moral and religious conviction, self-determination, prayer exercises, psycho-education, and informal counseling as psycho-spiritual treatment approaches. The study recommended that, the structured and formal psycho-spiritual therapy and psycho-education treatment approaches be put in place to enhance self-care and positive attitude of the youth. The pastoral agents offering spiritual and pastoral care to the youth refugees, the UN agencies, and Government Institutions would be the beneficiaries of these findings. Finally, the study outcome is projected to exhibit a stable trajectory of functioning and meaningful life, full of hope and assurance for the refugee youth. WAPOKURWA SANTO CONSTANTINE Download
21EXPLORATION OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING SYNCRETISM AMONG THE LAITY OF OYO DIOCESE, NIGERIAFACTORS INFLUENCING SYNCRETISM Many Africans who have embraced Christianity are still entrenched in African Traditional Religion and are said to be in admixture. This study explored the factors influencing syncretism among the laity of the Catholic Diocese of Oyo, Nigeria. The research objectives are: to explore the common religious syncretic practices among the laity, to examine factors contributing to acts of syncretism among the laity, to investigate how syncretic practices influence the psychological well-being of the laity, to investigate the relationship between faith level and syncretic practices among the laity, and to examine the laity’s coping strategies in the face of religious syncretic practices. Concurrent triangulation mixed method design was used. The target population for the study is 19,124. Stratified sampling technique was adopted in selecting 298 participants from three deaneries within the target population for quantitative data. Validity was ensured through the strict supervision of the supervisors. Reliability of questionnaires was ascertained through pre-test. The researcher used purposive sampling technique to select 6 participants for interviews to obtain qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The research findings showed that there are factors influencing syncretism among laity of Oyo Diocese, Nigeria. The study found out that poverty, sickness, barrenness, seeking for power, position and quick wealth make people to be involved in syncretism. The study showed that their faith level is not really significant in whether they will engage in syncretism or not. This is based on their cultural background, environment and roots. The study also showed that syncretism impacted their psychological wellbeing. The study recommends that catechism, evangelization, and psycho-education should be done for those involved in syncretism to help them overcome double-dealing and syncretic practices. The findings of this study will be of help to the Catholic Diocese of Oyo, Nigeria in curbing syncretism, and will also help priests working in areas of high syncretism, the lay faithful involved in syncretism and psychologists. ANTHONY ’YEMI OLANREWAJU Download
22INFLUENCE OF PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONS ON LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG THE HIV PATIENTS IN ST. MARY’S MISSION HOSPITAL, LANG’ATA. NAIROBI, KENYAPSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONS ON LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG THE HIV PATIENTS The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of psycho-spiritual interventions on life satisfaction among the HIV patients in St.Mary’s mission hospital, lang’ata. Nairobi, Kenya. The study was guided by the following questions, what is the influence of psychological counseling on the life satisfaction among HIV patients? How does spiritual counseling influence life satisfaction among HIV patients? Which coping mechanisms does a HIV patient adopt in their situation? What are the psycho-spiritual strategies used by the HIVpatient? The study employed mixed paradigm thesis methodology; both cross sectional survey phenomenology design were used. Purposive and random sampling method were used to sample 40 HIV patients, 6 Medical Doctors, 8 Nurses, 8 Counselors, and 3 Hospital Administrators formed part of the respondents that was investigated for this study. The study used 30% of the total population (65) in the St.Mary’s private Hospital. The data was gathered using questionnaire for patients and interview schedule for medical doctors, nurses a, counselors and hospital administrators. The quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical package for social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 and was presented by the use of tables, frequencies and percentages while qualitative data were analyzed and categorized into themes and presented in narrative form. These five categories of respondents were targeted because they had first-hand information that is vital for this study. The thesis was guided by logo therapy as the theoretical framework focusing on the existential therapy to the HIV patients. The thesis findings were that there was a positive and significant relationship between psychological counseling interventions and life satisfaction mean of (r=0.336, p<0.01). The thesis established some of the coping techniques used by HIV patients to include group therapy, individual counseling, prayer, family and relative support and medical treatment, public awareness campaign, diagnosis and treatment, recreation and sports, community advocacy programs, economic empowerment programs. The thesis recommends that there is need for the hospital management and the policy makers to address the various needs and appreciate the contribution made by local medical team in the management of HIV related problems. There is need for the hospital administration to provide ample time for the chaplaincy to convey information on psycho-spiritual approach to all the medical team in the facility during continuous medical education, at least once a month and these findings can be shared by the entire St. Mary’s Hospital systems. FR. JOHN KILASARA THOMAS Download
23PSYCHO-SOCIAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE ON SOME CATHOLIC PRIESTS IN NAIROBI AND THE IMPERATIVE OF PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONPSYCHO-SOCIAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ABUSEAddictions and specifically alcohol addiction is one of the most widespread problems affecting a lot of people in the world. This research investigated Psycho-Social Effects of Alcohol Abuse on some Catholic Priests in Nairobi and the Imperative of Psycho-Spiritual Intervention. It was guided by E.M Jellinek’s disease theory of alcoholism and Viktor Frankl’s theory of logotherapy. The objective was to investigate psycho-social effects of alcohol abuse on some priests and how psycho-spirituality can help affected priests. The study was hinged on four research questions which were: What is the understanding of the problem of alcohol abuse among priests in Nairobi? What are psychological effects of alcohol abuse on priests in Nairobi? What are social effects of alcohol abuse on priests in Nairobi? What are some psycho-spiritual interventions that can offer holistic healing to priests affected by alcohol abuse in Nairobi? In the study, qualitative approach was employed using the phenomenological study design. The target population was 100 priests who stay in Nairobi County. The sample size were 4 recovering priests who had undergone rehabilitation for alcohol abuse, 4 priests who had lived or worked with the alcoholic priests, 4 counselors who had accompanied alcoholic priests in rehabilitation and 4 laity members who had experienced alcoholic priests, making the sample size a total of 16 respondents. The research instrument used was semi structured interview. Data collection took the mode of face to face interview with the respondents. The data were collected, coded and analyzed according to research themes. The findings of the research showed that the socio-cultural background from which some priests grow can influence their likelihood to alcohol abuse. Also factors like the progressive nature of the disease of alcoholism, genetic and environmental factors surrounding some priests can also engender alcohol abuse among them. It was also discovered from the findings that anxiety, depression, resentment and selfishness are usually the complements of alcohol abuse and these were significantly seen in the life of priests who abused alcohol in Nairobi. The findings are meant to bring to the awareness of church hierarchy, priests and seminarians the dangers of alcohol abuse and its devastating consequences on the priestly ministry and how psycho-spirituality as an enterprise of holistic healing can offer succor and meaningful resuscitation to priests affected by alcohol abuse. This study recommends that education on chemical dependency should be included in the curriculum of seminary training.FINIAN UCHE NWORDUH Download
24RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FORMS OF COMMUNICATION AND MARITAL SATISFACTION AMONG COUPLES OF THE CATHOLIC ARCHDIOCESE OF ABUJA-NIGERIA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONFORMS OF COMMUNICATION,MARITAL SATISFACTION AMONG COUPLES In recent times, marriages in metropolitan cities have become more and more troubled and unstable. Most often couples do not have time for each other as they are mostly preoccupied with their careers and do not give enough attention to the emotional needs of their spouses. This usually affects the level of couple’s communication that is supposed to make them to bond and become intimate with each other. This study investigated the relationship between forms of communication and marital satisfaction among couples in the Catholic Archdiocese of Abuja. The study was guided by four objectives: to establish the relationship between antagonistic communication and marital satisfaction, determine the relationship between confiding communication and marital satisfaction, to examine the relationship between withdrawal communication and marital satisfaction, to look at the need for psycho-spiritual interventions. The study adopted mixed-method approach design and the Concurrent Triangulation Design was used. Validity of the instruments was ensured by the expect judgement of supervisors while reliability was guaranteed by the use of the internal consistency method and a reliability coefficient of r = 0.949 was reported. The quantitative approach was correlational in nature, while the qualitative was phenomenological. A sample size of 240 Catholic Couples consisting of 120 married men and 120 married women from 12 parishes in the 6 Deaneries of the Archdiocese of Abuja. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the 240 participants while interview guide was used for the Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and One-on-One interview of 24 participants. Quantitative data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation while the qualitative data was analyzed by thematic analysis. The findings was discussed and interpreted. The findings discovered that there is a strong positive correlation between confiding communication and marital satisfaction among couples of the Catholic Archdiocese of Abuja-Nigeria. While antagonistic and withdrawal has negative correlation with marital satisfaction. The study recommends that the Bishops, Priests and Deacons should insist on adequate preparation for premarital and training for post-marital development in helping intending couples and married couples respectively to avoid dissatisfying and unstable marriages. Parish Priest should be closer to families by visitation and organizing Marriage seminars to psycho-educate couples on the need to have confiding and effective communication in their marriages. MATHIAS, LOUIS MFON Download
25PARENTING STYLES AND CHARACTER FORMATION OF ADOLESCENTS OF ST. JOSEPH’S MINOR SEMINARY, ZARIA-NIGERIA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONPARENTING STYLES AND CHARACTER FORMATION OF ADOLESCENTS Parenting has always been an issue in Africa especially now that the different generations of parents think differently on how children are supposed to be raised. This has affected the behaviors of adolescents especially those in St Joseph’s Minor Seminary, Zaria-Nigeria. This study therefore explored parenting styles and character formation of adolescents of St Joseph’s Minor seminary, Zaria-Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between parenting style and character formation of adolescents. The study objectives were: To find out the relationship between authoritative parenting style and character formation; to establish the relationship between authoritarian parenting style and character formation; to examine the relationship between permissive parenting style and character formation; to evaluate the relationship between neglectful parenting style and character formation; to explore the psycho-spiritual intervention that can be used to enhance character formation. This study adopted Concurrent Triangulation design within the mixed methods approach. The target population for this study was 137 students of St. Joseph’s Minor Seminary, Zaria, 137 parents and 21 teachers. The researcher made use of purposeful sampling technique with particular reference to saturated sampling technique to select all the students who are 137. 10 parents and 4 teachers were selected based on Mason’s model for both qualitative and quantitative study bringing the total to 151 participants. Data was collected using interview guide, questionnaires and focus group discussion. Validity was ensured through the strict supervision of the supervisors. Reliability of questionnaires was ascertained by the split-half method and a co-efficient of r=0.86 was reported. The research findings indicated that parenting styles have great impact on the character formation of adolescents of St. Joseph’s Minor Seminary, Zaria-Nigeria. The study found out that when adolescents are raised with authoritarian, permissive or neglectful parenting style, they negatively impact on the character development of these adolescents giving rise to the maladaptive behavior they exhibit in school. The study showed that authoritative parenting style produces good outcomes in terms of adolescents’ character formation. It also established that when adolescents are engaged in spiritual activities, it would help to develop their character positively. The study recommends that religious leaders should psycho-educate parents and adolescents on the best parenting practices that favor good character development. ISTIFANUS MAKOSHI KATUNG Download
26EFFECTS OF NON-CONTINUITY OF SPIRITUAL DIRECTION ON PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING OF MALE AND FEMALE RELIGIOUS IN THE CATHOLIC ARCHDIOCESE OF LILONGWE, MALAWISpiritual direction and psychosocial wellbeing of religious peopleEvery male and female religious needs Spiritual Direction. However, this important aspect of life was neglected after ordination and final vows. The purpose of this study was therefore to establish the effects of non-continuity of spiritual direction on psychosocial well-being of male and female religious in the Catholic Archdiocese of Lilongwe, Malawi. The study was guided by the following objectives: To investigate the continuity of spiritual direction among male and female religious; To establish the effect of non-continuity of spiritual direction on addictive behaviour among male and female religious; To examine how non-continuation of spiritual direction leads to burnout among male and female religious; To ascertain the effect of non-continuity of spiritual direction on the self-care of male and female religious; To establish the influence of gender, age, culture and level of education on non-continuation of spiritual direction among male and female religious in the Archdiocese of Lilongwe, Malawi. It adopted mixed method research where both qualitative and quantitative phenomenology research design was integrated and used concurrently. The study, however found that spiritual direction generally continues after final vows and ordination to priesthood. HERMES PAONONGA SAC Download
27IDENTITY AND SELF-CONCEPT OF TRANSGENDER PERSONS IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONTRANSGENDER-IDENTITY AND SELF-CONCEPT-PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTION Transgender identity is incongruent with societal norms and as such attracts discrimination and stigmatization. Such discrimination from the society has the capacity of affecting their self-image and self-esteem. This study, therefore, explored the identity and self-concept of transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya with the aim of investigating the role of psycho-spiritual therapy and counselling intervention in building the self-image/esteem of transgender persons. The study was guided by five research objectives: to examine the identity of the transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya; to explore the self-image of the transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya; to investigate the self-esteem of the transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya; to explore strategies used by transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya toward coping with their identity and self-concept; and to find out the role of psycho-spiritual counselling intervention in the building of a healthy self-concept among transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study employed a qualitative research method using phenomenological design which involved triangulation technique such as, face-to-face interviews and a focus group discussion. The target population was eighteen from Jinsiangu Transgender Support Group in Nairobi, Kenya. Purposive sampling technique was employed. The data for the study were collected, coded for themes and analyzed thematically based on the research objectives. The findings of the research showed that the hostile social environment which transgender persons find themselves affects their self-image as expressed in frustrations, confusion, and humiliations. Consequently, their self-esteem was impacted on. Thus, they manifested mental health issues of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. The findings and recommendations of the research were meant to create awareness about the identity and self-concept of transgender persons for transgender persons themselves, and others. ONAH, PATRICIA OMARI Download
28IMPACT OF FORGIVENESS ON RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE PRIESTS OF MURANG’A CATHOLIC DIOCESEFORGIVENESS AMONG THE PRIESTS-MURANG’A CATHOLIC DIOCESEForgiveness is key to healthy relationships. Priests are agents of forgiveness. Through forgiveness relationships are enhanced among the priests. This study investigated the impact of forgiveness on relationship among the Catholic Clergy of Murang’a Diocese. The study was guided by the following objectives: To explore whether forgiveness influences relationships among priests in Murang’a Diocese, to examine whether attachment patterns and emotional intelligence contribute to forgiveness and relationship among priests in Murang’a Diocese, to suggest possible interventions which would enhance forgiveness and relationship among the priests of Murang’a Diocese. The researcher used concurrent triangulation design which allowed the researcher to collect both qualitative and quantitative data simultaneously. The target population was 115 priests. The study sampled 86 priests respondents from Murang’a Diocese. The researcher using saturated sampling had 68 assistant priests for questionnaires and simple sampling for 18 parish priests for the interviews. Validity was ensured through strict supervision of the supervisors while reliability test re-test method was used using pearson’s coefficient where a corelation coefficient was achieved. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires, interview guide and observations. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics presented in tables and charts. Descriptive statistics used percentages to interprete data while in inferential statistic r= of pearson in a correlation co-efficient was used.Qualitative data was analyzed through themes. The study established that forgiveness facilitates healing as it sets priests free and helps them re-establish and stabilize relationships with their fellow priests. The study recommended that to foster forgiveness and a healthy relationship among priests, the Bishop needs to establish conflict and resolution mechanism which should include counseling, capacity building progammes on forgiveness and relationships, forgiveness and emotional intelligence, attachment patterns and self awareness.STEPHEN KINUTHIA MBICI Download
29IMPACT OF FULANI MILITIA ATTACK ON PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS OF KAGOMA- NIGERIA.IMPACT OF FULANI MILITIA ATTACK-PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTSThe study investigated the impact of the Fulani militia attack on the psychosocial development of adolescent and young adult of kagoma in Kaduna state, Nigeria. The Kagoma people have faced many years of violent attacks by the Fulani herders, leaving many people dead, injured and traumatised. The study was informed by Erik Erickson Theory of psychosocial development. The researcher used the concurrent triangulation method which is qualitative and quantitative in nature. This method aimed at answering the research questions which focused on the impact of Fulani militia attack on the psychosocial development of adolescents and young adults, the coping strategy and psycho-spiritual counseling intervention for the survivors. The target population in this study were 998. The researcher employed the simple random sampling technique to select participants for both the quantitative and qualitative study. The researcher collected the data using interview guide and questionnaires. Validity was determined by content validity in which the research instruments were developed under strict supervision and guidance of the supervisors. Reliability of the questionnaires was ensured by the enter-Rater method. Trustworthiness of the qualitative data was also ensured by the triangulation of data. The findings of the study indicated that the Fulani militia attack have had serious effect on the psychosocial development of the adolescents and young adults in terms of their self-esteem, trauma, sadness and stress. The finding also showed that most respondents favoured the forgiveness therapy as the best counseling technique that would help bring healing to victims of the violence. The study recommended that Kagoma people and political authorities should draw from the resources this study offers by providing help to educate the people on the need to mutually coexist together irrespective of ethnic or religious affiliations.ROCK-MARIO LOMA SUNDAY Download
30 INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON ENHANCEMENT OF PASTORAL MINISTRY AMONG CATHOLIC PRIESTS IN TAMALE ARCHDIOCESE, GHANAEMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE-PRIESTSIt remains mind baffling why intelligent people and leaders, including Catholic priests, are not always successful in dealing with people and handling situations that engage their competence in order to promote the general well-being of those they serve. Emotional Intelligence is said to matter twice more than Intelligent Quotient in achieving leadership success, and this present study investigates the Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Enhancement of Pastoral Ministry among Catholic Priests in Tamale Archdiocese in Ghana. Domains of emotional intelligence considered were self-awareness, self-motivation, social awareness and relationship management. Emotional intelligence influenced pastoral ministry in areas of catechesis, celebration of the Sacraments, human relationship and parish governance. Base on Emotional Intelligence Theory, this study used the concurrent triangulation design within the mixed method. The target population comprised 54 priests and 2,000 lay faithful. A sample size of 34 priests and 160 lay faithful was used for quantitative data using random and stratified sampling techniques, respectively. Interview guide and questionnaires were used as instruments to obtain qualitative and quantitative data respectively. Qualitative data obtained from 6 priests were analyzed using thematic analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship and direction between the independent and dependent variables. Reliabilities of questionnaires were ascertained by the Cronbach’s Alpha method with coefficients (r) as follow: EQ-i =0.87; AAQ-R=0.713; and PC-Q=0.996. The study findings affirmed a strong positive correlation between emotional intelligence and pastoral ministry among catholic priests, and highlighted the need for priests to strive to grow in self-awareness of their emotions, intensify their prayer life to enhance their relationship with God and others. Seminary formators, bishops, and religious superiors should intensify efforts in integrative formation of emotions and intelligence, and ensure concrete ongoing formation for priests on self-awareness and holistic healing through seminars on psycho-spirituality and emotional intelligence.SEBASTIAN NNIABAKPE KASTNER BALANSUAH Download
31INFLUENCE OF PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONS ON LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG THE HIV PATIENTS IN ST. MARY’S MISSION HOSPITAL, LANG’ATA. NAIROBI, KENYAHIV PATIENTS AND PSYCHOSPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONSThe purpose of the study was to determine the influence of psycho-spiritual interventions on life satisfaction among the HIV patients in St.Mary’s mission hospital, lang’ata. Nairobi, Kenya. The study was guided by the following questions, what is the influence of psychological counseling on the life satisfaction among HIV patients? How does spiritual counseling influence life satisfaction among HIV patients? Which coping mechanisms does a HIV patient adopt in their situation? What are the psycho-spiritual strategies used by the HIVpatient? The study employed mixed paradigm thesis methodology; both cross sectional survey phenomenology design were used. Purposive and random sampling method were used to sample 40 HIV patients, 6 Medical Doctors, 8 Nurses, 8 Counselors, and 3 Hospital Administrators formed part of the respondents that was investigated for this study. The study used 30% of the total population (65) in the St.Mary’s private Hospital. The data was gathered using questionnaire for patients and interview schedule for medical doctors, nurses a, counselors and hospital administrators. The quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical package for social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 and was presented by the use of tables, frequencies and percentages while qualitative data were analyzed and categorized into themes and presented in narrative form. These five categories of respondents were targeted because they had first-hand information that is vital for this study. The thesis was guided by logo therapy as the theoretical framework focusing on the existential therapy to the HIV patients. The thesis findings were that there was a positive and significant relationship between psychological counseling interventions and life satisfaction mean of (r=0.336, p<0.01). The thesis established some of the coping techniques used by HIV patients to include group therapy, individual counseling, prayer, family and relative support and medical treatment, public awareness campaign, diagnosis and treatment, recreation and sports, community advocacy programs, economic empowerment programs. The thesis recommends that there is need for the hospital management and the policy makers to address the various needs and appreciate the contribution made by local medical team in the management of HIV related problems. There is need for the hospital administration to provide ample time for the chaplaincy to convey information on psycho-spiritual approach to all the medical team in the facility during continuous medical education, at least once a month and these findings can be shared by the entire St. Mary’s Hospital systems.FR. JOHN KILASARA THOMAS Download
32INFLUENCE OF SINGLE MOTHERHOOD ON SECONDARY SCHOOL TEENAGERS’ DELINQUENCY IN LANG’ATA SUB- COUNTY, KENYA: PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONTEENAGERS’ DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR-SINGLE MOTHERHOOD FAIMILIES A well-functioning family structure is very important in creating responsible teenagers in the society. It is anticipated that children who experience parental separation are on the average worse off socially than their peers in intact families. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of single motherhood on secondary school teenagers’ delinquency in Lang’ata Sub-County, Kenya. The study was guided by the following objectives: To examine the relationship between teenage anti-social behavior and single mother parenting style in Lang’ata Sub County, Kenya, particularly in terms of addiction to drugs, theft, truancy and aggressiveness. In addition, the study explored psycho-spiritual interventions that could be used to address the problem of delinquency among teenagers from single motherhood in Lang’ata Sub County, Kenya. The study is informed by two theories namely: Attachment Theory and Structural Family Theory. The reviewed literature demonstrated that teenagers from single mother families are susceptible to anti-social behaviour such as drug abuse, truancy, stealing and aggression. The study adopted a quantitative survey research design. The target population was 352 participants drawn from secondary schools in Lang’ata Sub-County. A sample of 107 respondents was recruited comprising of 101 students and 6 teachers. Descriptive statistics based on frequencies, percentage and calculating the mean average and standard deviation with help of SPSS version 21 was used to conduct the data analysis. In addition, Pearson correlational statistics was used to explore if there were significance influence of single mothers parenting style on teenagers’ anti-social behaviour. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between teenagers’ anti-social behaviour and single mothers’ parenting style. Specifically, the findings for single mothers’ influence on teenagers’ tendency to abuse drugs presented an r= 0.208 at p<0.05 indicating a positive correlation. Equally, the findings for the influence of single mothers on teenagers’ school absenteeism reflect an r = .270 at p <0.05 indicating that there is a significant correlation of single mothers’ influence on teenagers’ experience of truancy. In addition, the findings revealed that single mothers parenting style impact on teenagers’ theft behaviour as the results portrayed an r =.107 as against the recommended threshold of p <0.05. The findings for single mothers influence on teenagers’ behaviour of aggressiveness presents an r = .0.65 against the recommended threshold of p <0.05 indicating that teenagers’ exhibition of aggressive behaviours are influenced by single mother parenting style. Furthermore, the findings for the role of psycho-spiritual therapy in assisting teenagers who exhibit anti-social behaviour portrayed an r = .411 at p < 0.000, which implies that psycho-spiritual counsellors are needed in the treatment of teenagers’ delinquency. These findings have implications for single mothers who ought to be vigilant by offering close supervision to their teenage children in order to guide them from making unnecessary mistakes in life and as such avoid developing anti-social behaviours. The ministry of education should also establish support programs aimed at assisting teenagers from engaging in illicit behaviour. Similarly, school administrators and teachers should pay special attention to teenagers from single mother families and provide them with ample opportunity to share their feelings without being judged negatively by others. The study also recommends that the services of psycho-spiritual counselors should be enlisted in offering help to teenagers including single mothers. MOSES KAWA Download
33FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ STUDY HABITS IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG SUB-COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTYFactors influencing students’ study habitsABSTRACT Broad and deep study habit is beneficial to students and all other individuals in the community. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing students’ study habits in public and private secondary schools in Ngong sub-county, Kajiado county. Questionnaires were employed to collect data and information of this study. The study found that majority of the students have time to study on their own and most of them agreed that study habit is important and they value it. Majority of the students live in conducive home environment. There are well equipped libraries in schools both private and public schools. Students have studied for and during an examination. Parents support their children in their studies. Students did not study to receive a reward such as praise from their parents and teachers and others have studied hard to avoid being punished by their parents and teachers. Majority of students lack motivation to study apart from their academic materials. Majority of teachers agreed that forming a study habit is important in students’ life. Teachers have positive towards students’ study habits and support their students in their studies. They teach only what is examined for students to pass examination. Teachers are role models of their students towards study habits and use electronic gadgets to access educative materials to enhance study habits of their students. Students should read widely and other materials apart from their academic course but not just to limit themselves in cramming what will be examined. This will enhance their knowledge and to develop good study behaviours. An organized timetable will help students to avoid time-wasting. Students should be to be taught time management skills so that they can use their time properly.TAKAKI, GUERADI TOUR-HALI Download
34INVESTIGATION OF STRESS REDUCTION AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS IN KISUMU NDOGO VILLAGE OF KIBERA SUB-COUNTY, NAIROBISingle mothers and stress managementSingle motherhood has been identified as a challenging role with disadvantages including financial hardship and poor mental health in Kibera Sub-County, Nairobi County. The study sought to explore the factors leading to stress among single mothers in Kibera Sub county, found out the socio-cultural practices used by the single mothers in stress management, identified the psychological copying strategies used by the single mothers in stress management and proposed psycho- spiritual intervention for stress reduction in single mothers in Kibera Sub county. The study was guided by Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Stress (CATS) of Folkman and Richard, and Stress Reduction Theory (SRT) of Roger and Robert. This study was grounded on a qualitative method with phenomenological design. The study usedface to face, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussion using open-ended questions for data collection. The researcher used purposive sampling techniques to recruit 17 single mothers from the target population of 50 single mothers in Kisumu Ndogo village, aged 20 to 50 years old. The collected data were described, coded, analyzed and presented in thematic and narrative forms and direct quotation from the participants based on research objectives. The findings of the study revealed that the most factors leading to stress among single mothers in Kibera were based on finances to meet basic needs. Some of their psycho-spiritual coping strategies were doing manual work, walking, listen to music, singing and praying, the acceptance of the situation, share with friends, watching the Movies ,and community and social supports. MUKARUSANGANWA, CLEMENTINE Download
35 THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES ON THE MATURITY OF PRIESTS IN ABUJA NIGERIA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL COUNSELLING INTERVENTIONPsychosocial aspect-Maturity of priestsPriests are formed and trained to live a good life in order to influence people positively. However, they are prone to some negative psychosocial issues in the course of their work. This study, therefore, explored the influence of psychosocial issues on the maturity of priests in Abuja, Nigeria: a psycho-spiritual intervention. Priests experience myriad of psychosocial issues from family dynamics, mental health issues, and societal cum cultural values. The research objectives were: to investigate the common psychosocial issues among priests, to explore how psychosocial issues influence the maturity priests, to discover how psychosocial issues influence the self-care of priests and to examine the need for psycho-spiritual therapeutic counselling interventions in aiding priests’ overall maturity. The study employed the phenomenological design which is qualitative in nature. The targeted population was the 127 diocesan priests of the Catholic Archdiocese of Abuja, Nigeria. 20 participants and 6 participants were purposively drawn from the 127 priests of the Archdiocese for the face-to-face interview sessions and the focus group discussion respectively. Validity and reliability were ensured by expert judgement of supervisors and the trustworthiness of the qualitative data. The study identified isolation, competition, materialism, addiction to social media, identity crisis, and so forth as the psychosocial issues influencing the maturity of priests. The psychosocial issues influence the maturity of priests in the areas of interpersonal relationship, pastoral leadership and self-care. The study through the participants suggested the need for psycho-spiritual therapeutic counselling interventions to assist priests to renew and sustain their maturity needs and output. The psycho-spiritual interventions included; spiritual interventions like self-awareness and integration; and self-care cum supervision, forgiveness, individual psychotherapy and group therapy and support. The study recommends that Rectors, Formators and seminarians should intensify efforts toward integrative formation. Priests need to be aware of their humanity and its psychosocial needs. Priests need to process their psychosocial issues and needs through psycho-spiritual therapeutic counselling; and Bishops, priests and leaders of the lay apostolates need to create awareness about the psychosocial needs of priests and work towards assisting them. ATEP, JOHN-MARY NTOL Download
36THE INFLUENCE OF SPIRITUAL DIRECTION ON THE PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING OF THE STUDENTS IN FORMATION AT MARIST INTERNATIONAL CENTRE, KENYAINFLUENCE OF SPIRITUAL DIRECTION ON THE PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING OF THE STUDENTSSpiritual direction has become part of the formation program for religious and priests in the Catholic Church as a means of inspiring spiritual growth and maturity in the formation Houses. This research focused on the influence of spiritual direction on the psychosocial wellbeing of students of formation in Marist International Centre, Kenya. The study employed a descriptive design, mixed methods. The research objectives were to explore how spiritual direction influence psychosocial wellbeing, to find out the challenges faced in spiritual direction, to determine how spiritual direction can be used as a coping mechanism for psychosocial wellbeing. The theoretical framework of Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs motivation theory informed the research. The target population was 72 participants comprising of 67 temporary professed Marist brothers and 5 formators in Marist International Centre, Kenya; who were purposively sampled to participate in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 52 students, open-ended questionnaires for 5 formator and 8 participants were interviewed. The study used descriptive and inferential statics for the quantitative data and thematic analysis for the qualitative data. Data generated was computed using the statistical program for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. A partial correlation was done to establish the relationship between spiritual direction and psychosocial wellbeing. The findings of the study revealed that despite the challenges students face in spiritual direction, there is a positive influence of spiritual direction on psychosocial wellbeing. The study concluded that there was indeed a relationship between the experience of spiritual direction and psychosocial wellbeing. 82.7% of the students agreed that spiritual direction influenced their psychosocial wellbeing positively. The study recommended that formators need to create more awareness to enhance the influence of spiritual direction for the psychosocial wellbeing of students, there needs to be ongoing formation and supervision for spiritual directors. It is envisaged that the results of this research will inform the decisions of superiors and formators in formation program and planning.JOSEPH KARBO Download
37THE INFLUENCE OF SPIRITUAL DIRECTION ON THE PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING OF THE STUDENTS IN FORMATION AT MARIST INTERNATIONAL CENTRE, KENYAINFLUENCE OF SPIRITUAL DIRECTION ON THE PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING OF THE STUDENTSSpiritual direction has become part of the formation program for religious and priests in the Catholic Church as a means of inspiring spiritual growth and maturity in the formation Houses. This research focused on the influence of spiritual direction on the psychosocial wellbeing of students of formation in Marist International Centre, Kenya. The study employed a descriptive design, mixed methods. The research objectives were to explore how spiritual direction influence psychosocial wellbeing, to find out the challenges faced in spiritual direction, to determine how spiritual direction can be used as a coping mechanism for psychosocial wellbeing. The theoretical framework of Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs motivation theory informed the research. The target population was 72 participants comprising of 67 temporary professed Marist brothers and 5 formators in Marist International Centre, Kenya; who were purposively sampled to participate in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 52 students, open-ended questionnaires for 5 formator and 8 participants were interviewed. The study used descriptive and inferential statics for the quantitative data and thematic analysis for the qualitative data. Data generated was computed using the statistical program for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. A partial correlation was done to establish the relationship between spiritual direction and psychosocial wellbeing. The findings of the study revealed that despite the challenges students face in spiritual direction, there is a positive influence of spiritual direction on psychosocial wellbeing. The study concluded that there was indeed a relationship between the experience of spiritual direction and psychosocial wellbeing. 82.7% of the students agreed that spiritual direction influenced their psychosocial wellbeing positively. The study recommended that formators need to create more awareness to enhance the influence of spiritual direction for the psychosocial wellbeing of students, there needs to be ongoing formation and supervision for spiritual directors. It is envisaged that the results of this research will inform the decisions of superiors and formators in formation program and planning.JOSEPH KARBO Download
38MISSIONING AND JOB SATISFACTION OF CATHOLIC RELIGIOUS SISTERS IN KAREN, NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA: IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONJob satisfaction among catholic sisters-KenyaCatholic religious sisters are missioned to various apostolates by their superiors, which the Church describes as mission. The sisters could be assigned to a variety of mission fields depending on the congregational charism in line with the sisters’ professional skills and/or ability. Ideally, the superiors are meant to consult/dialogue with the sisters to ensure that missioning arises as a result of shared responsibility. This study targeted Catholic religious sisters in Karen, Nairobi County, Kenya. The main aim was to explore if the sisters in their lived reality of religious life have experienced consultation, which ought to facilitate their sense of job satisfaction as God’s happy workers. Four research objectives guided the study as follows: to find out how the sisters experience mission, to examine sisters’ experiences of consultation in relation to mission, to investigate the impact of mission on the sisters’ job satisfaction, and to evaluate the role of psycho-spiritual intervention for animating consultation process. Phenomenological approach of qualitative method was used in the study. A purposive sample of 22 Catholic religious sisters was used. Data were collected using interview and focus group discussion guide. The findings showed that consultation impacted positively on job satisfaction of the sisters. Therefore, the study recommends that leaders of religious life (including policy makers) make more concrete effort to consult/dialogue with the sisters before sending them on mission. Seminars/workshops should also be conducted as means of psycho-spiritual intervention to assist the superiors and the sisters interact with each other in a more holistic manner. ADEGUN CELINA OMOLOLA, SSMA Download
39 Influence of self-care awareness on the physical well-being of African women religious in Karen, Nairobi, KenyaHealth of African women religious in Kenya The study explored the level of self-care awareness and the influence of its practice on the physical well-being of African Catholic women religious in Karen, Nairobi-Kenya. The research adopted qualitative paradigm, and used phenomenological design. It targeted all African women religious living in Karen. Maximum variation sampling technique was used to select four women‟s religious congregations that participated in the study. Criterion sampling technique was used to select 10 participants for the study, comprising 4 women religious, 2 religious brothers, 2 priests and 2 lay persons. Four research questions guided the study and interview guide was used to collect data. The interviews were transcribed, coded and categorised into themes. The themes were interrelated and presented in a narrative form. The findings revealed that women religious in Karen-Nairobi were prevented from self-caring due to overwork, negligence, wrong concept of religious life, poor remuneration, poverty, influence of entrenched gender role, inability to integrate prayer life, the apostolate and community life as well as a misunderstanding of the meaning of self-care. Suggested remedial interventions included awareness creation, greater access to education, designing and use of a self-care curriculum, regular supervision of self-care practice by superiors, the replacement of life-diminishing structures in the religious life and the Church, revision of life and establishing economic sustainability. The implications of the study findings and limitations were discussed, while recommendations for future research and the integration of study findings into the lifestyle of the target group for optimal, holistic well-being and ministerial effectiveness were also proposed.Uche, Anthonia Odilile Download
40 A correlational study on midlife transition and psychological wellbeing among religious sisters in Karen Parish NairobiMidlife transitionThis study explored the correlational between midlife transition and psychological well-being among religious women from Karen Parish. The study’s objectives were: to explore the experiences of midlife transition issues among religious women in Karen Parish, to examine the impact of midlife transition issues on psychological well-being among consecrated women in Karen parish, to investigate the correlational between midlife transition issues and psychological well-being among the consecrated women in Karen Parish, to explore the coping strategies used at midlife transition among consecrated women in Karen Parish. The study used concurrent triangulation design to collect both quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously. The target population was 115 consecrated religious women who reside in Kenya. A sample size of 90 religious women aged between 40 and 60 from Karen Parish was selected for study, using purposive sampling and convenience sampling. Questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect data. The quantitative data was analysed using Pearson correlation coefficient regression analysis while qualitative data was transcribed, coded and analysed using thematic analysis. The findings of this study give more understanding to religious women on how to take care of themselves at this transitional stage.Njinu, Ann Wanjiru Download
41Psychological Effects of Trauma Among Displaced Families in Numan and Yola North, Adamawa State, Nigeria.Psychological trauma among displaced victims of religious violenceThis research work studied the traumatic events experienced by the people of Numan and Yola North of Adamawa State, where the researcher had worked within the past four years. The experiences of both flood disasters and civil crisis resulted to the displaced families experiencing the trauma of loss. Due to the incidents of natural flood disaster and Boko Haram civil unrest both Yola North and Numan hosted thousands of displaced families and individuals. The problem of the study investigated was the management of the trauma of loss among the displaced families in Numan and Yola North. The main objectives of this research work were to carry out an investigation into the causes responsible for the psychological traumatic stresses and their effects among the displaced families and individuals. The guiding theory for this study was the Rational Emotive Behavior Theory (REBT) of Albert Ellis. The study adopted a quantitative research method. The research design for this study was the survey research design which described the quantitative trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that population. The target population was 334 respondents. The sample population was 100 respondents. The simple random sampling procedure was used to select 20 men, 15 women and 15 youths from Numan and 20 men, 15 women and 15 youths from Yola North. The primary instrument for collecting data was mainly the structured five point likert scale questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze quantitative data with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 and the findings were presented in tables in form of frequencies and percentages based on the research questions. The findings of the study showed that displacement and homelessness were the major causes of stress and trauma among the displaced families and individuals. The conclusion was that the boko haram activities and the flood disaster were the major causes of stress and trauma of loss and providing psycho-spiritual counseling is the most suitable intervention.SIMEON PIUS SA’AD Download
43PARENTING STYLES AND CHARACTER FORMATION OF ADOLESCENTS OF ST. JOSEPH’S MINOR SEMINARY, ZARIA-NIGERIA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONparenting styles and character formationParenting has always been an issue in Africa especially now that the different generations of parents think differently on how children are supposed to be raised. This has affected the behaviors of adolescents especially those in St Joseph’s Minor Seminary, Zaria-Nigeria. This study therefore explored parenting styles and character formation of adolescents of St Joseph’s Minor seminary, Zaria-Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between parenting style and character formation of adolescents. The study objectives were: To find out the relationship between authoritative parenting style and character formation; to establish the relationship between authoritarian parenting style and character formation; to examine the relationship between permissive parenting style and character formation; to evaluate the relationship between neglectful parenting style and character formation; to explore the psycho-spiritual intervention that can be used to enhance character formation. This study adopted Concurrent Triangulation design within the mixed methods approach. The target population for this study was 137 students of St. Joseph’s Minor Seminary, Zaria, 137 parents and 21 teachers. The researcher made use of purposeful sampling technique with particular reference to saturated sampling technique to select all the students who are 137. 10 parents and 4 teachers were selected based on Mason’s model for both qualitative and quantitative study bringing the total to 151 participants. Data was collected using interview guide, questionnaires and focus group discussion. Validity was ensured through the strict supervision of the supervisors. Reliability of questionnaires was ascertained by the split-half method and a co-efficient of r=0.86 was reported. The research findings indicated that parenting styles have great impact on the character formation of adolescents of St. Joseph’s Minor Seminary, Zaria-Nigeria. The study found out that when adolescents are raised with authoritarian, permissive or neglectful parenting style, they negatively impact on the character development of these adolescents giving rise to the maladaptive behavior they exhibit in school. The study showed that authoritative parenting style produces good outcomes in terms of adolescents’ character formation. It also established that when adolescents are engaged in spiritual activities, it would help to develop their character positively. The study recommends that religious leaders should psycho-educate parents and adolescents on the best parenting practices that favor good character developmentISTIFANUS MAKOSHI KATUNG Download
42POST TRAUMATIC EXPERIENCES OF BOMB BLAST VICTIMS AT ST. THERESA’S PARISH MADALLA, MINNA DIOCESE NIGER STATE, NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL COUNSELING INTERVENTIONPost traumatic experiences of bomb blast victims in Nigeria |There have been cases of bomb blasts in certain parts of Nigeria for some time now. The current study investigated the post traumatic experiences of bomb blast victims of Madalla, Minna Diocese Niger State, Nigeria, West Africa. The study objectives were: To determine the psychological experiences of bomb blast victims in St. Theresa’ Madalla in Minna Diocese Nigeria; to examine the social experiences of the bomb blast victims in St. Theresa’ Madalla in Minna Diocese Nigeria; to establish the emotional experiences of the bomb blast victims in St. Theresa’ Madalla in Minna Diocese Nigeria and to explore the psycho-spiritual interventions that could be adopted to assist bomb blast victims in St. Theresa’ Madalla in Minna Diocese Nigeria. The Rational Emotive behavior Therapy informed the study. The Phenomenological research design was adopted. The target population for this study comprised of 20 respondents. Simple random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling were employed to sample participants in the study. The research instrument used was the interview schedule. Validity of instruments was censured by expert judgment of university lecturers while Reliability was censured by trustworthiness of qualitative data. Data was analyzed using thematic framework. The findings were that the psychological experiences of bomb blast victims, included phobia of crowded places, paranoid behavior, lack of concentration, nervousness, sense of insecurity and of lack of trust. Concerning the social experiences, some of participants reported dependency on God, avoidance of crowded area, emotional disturbance and family stability. On social experiences of trauma, the study concluded that most of the victims of the bomb blast undergo social trauma. However, the victims were found to be able to relate well with their families and peers where they get moral, psychological and financial support. On emotional experiences, most victims of the bomb blast were found to experience emotional distress; especially worrying over the health and safety of their loved ones. However, they rarely experience mood swings or hurt feelings from what other people say. On psycho-spiritual interventions adopted by the bomb blast victims, most victims of the bomb blast were found to be participating in spiritual matters as a coping mechanism. Most of them were found to be participating in spiritual activities such as night vigil, adorations, societal or devotional prayers as a coping mechanism against traumatic conditions that they are going through. The study recommends that the village heads should mobilize villagers to give moral, psychological and financial support to the victims of terror incidenceBARDE CHRISTOPHER JATAU Download
44IDENTITY AND SELF-CONCEPT OF TRANSGENDER PERSONS IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONTransgenderTransgender identity is incongruent with societal norms and as such attracts discrimination and stigmatization. Such discrimination from the society has the capacity of affecting their selfimage and self-esteem. This study, therefore, explored the identity and self-concept of transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya with the aim of investigating the role of psychospiritual therapy and counselling intervention in building the self-image/esteem of transgender persons. The study was guided by five research objectives: to examine the identity of the transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya; to explore the self-image of the transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya; to investigate the self-esteem of the transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya; to explore strategies used by transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya toward coping with their identity and self-concept; and to find out the role of psychospiritual counselling intervention in the building of a healthy self-concept among transgender persons in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study employed a qualitative research method using phenomenological design which involved triangulation technique such as, face-to-face interviews and a focus group discussion. The target population was eighteen from Jinsiangu Transgender Support Group in Nairobi, Kenya. Purposive sampling technique was employed. The data for the study were collected, coded for themes and analyzed thematically based on the research objectives. The findings of the research showed that the hostile social environment which transgender persons find themselves affects their self-image as expressed in frustrations, confusion, and humiliations. Consequently, their self-esteem was impacted on. Thus, they manifested mental health issues of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. The findings and recommendations of the research were meant to create awareness about the identity and selfconcept of transgender persons for transgender persons themselves, and others.ONAH, PATRICIA OMARI Download
45Perceived family obligation on church commitment among priests of Bauchi Diocese, NigeriaFamily obligation on church commitment Alfred Adler’s birth order theory (1966) holds that first born children in the family always find themselves included in family obligations. Some priests are first born. Catholic priests in Sub-Saharan Africa always face challenges to tackle poverty in their families. The purpose of the study was to evaluate perceived family obligation on Church commitment among priests of Bauchi Diocese, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to; assess the effects of financial, physical and emotional support of health care of parents on Church commitment (affective and continuance); examine the effects of the financial and emotional support of siblings on Church commitment; and examine whether birth order, age, education level and economic background moderate relationship between perceived family obligation and Church commitment. The study was conducted through Triangulation design; using questionnaire for population of 44 priests and short open ended interview guides from sample of 7 relatives of priests in Bauchi Diocese, Nigeria. The in-depth interviews were conducted with the relatives of the priests as a triangulation of the quantitative results. The study revealed that 46% of the participants had worked in the diocese for over 9 years, 37% were over 40 years with 69% having Bachelor’s degree and 60% being in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd birth orders. The study found no significant correlation between overall support for health of parents and overall church commitment (r=.126, p>.05) but negative significant correlation between financial support for parents and overall church commitment (r=-.285, p<.05). The study further found significant positive correlation between support for siblings and overall church commitment (r=.342, p<.05). Lastly, the study found no significant impact of the demographic factors on the relationship between perceived family obligation and church commitment (|β1 – β2| = .002, p>.05). It was concluded that family members have high expectations to get support from the priests, especially financial support which affects the commitment of the priests to pastoral activities. From the results, it was recommended that bishops and /or superiors need to devise a mechanism to help family members of the priests to understand that priests should not be part of family obligations. Further, it was recommended that priests need to be compensated to manage family obligations and thus improve their commitment in church.EMMANUEL NYONG EDET Download
46PERSISTENCE OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG THE GENOCIDE-WIDOWS IN NYAMATA SECTOR, RWANDA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL APPROACHPost-traumatic stress disorderPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been considered as a universal phenomenon that affects the lives of many people throughout the centuries. In 1994, the Rwanda genocide occurred killing almost one million people and leaving thousands widows, widowers and orphans. The purpose of this study was to explore the persistence of PTSD among the genocide-widows and propose a psycho-spiritual intervention in the healing process. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of PTSD among the genocide-widows in Nyamata sector, Rwanda; to explore the reasons for the persistence of PTSD 24 years after genocide; to investigate the coping strategies used by these widows and to suggest psycho-spiritual interventions in the healing process. The study was informed by Ehlers and Clark’s Cognitive Theory (2000) and Emotional Processing Theory propounded by Foa and Kozak (1986). Phenomenological design was used as an appropriate qualitative method that described a phenomenon of PTSD. Purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 18 widows from the target population of 210 genocide-widows who live in Nyamata. Interviews and focus group discussion were used to collect data.The findings of the study showed that genocide has contributed to the development of PTSD among the genocide-widows of Nyamata sector. Factors like multiple traumatic exposure, sustained physical injury, privation from burial and poverty were discovered to have contributed to the persistence of PTSD. From the findings, it was also noted that some widows used healthy coping strategies to cope with their trauma whereas others used unhealthy strategies. Finally, from the findings, the research suggested that psycho-spiritual interventions are possibly one of the most effective interventions in the recovery of PTSD victims. MUKARUGWIZA XAVERA, AS Download
47Physical well-being of African Catholic women religious by ANTHONIA UCHEHealth of African women religious in KenyaThe study explored the level of self-care awareness and the influence of its practice on the physical well-being of African Catholic women religious in Karen, Nairobi-Kenya. The research adopted qualitative paradigm, and used phenomenological design. It targeted all African women religious living in Karen. Maximum variation sampling technique was used to select four women‟s religious congregations that participated in the study. Criterion sampling technique was used to select 10 participants for the study, comprising 4 women religious, 2 religious brothers, 2 priests and 2 lay persons. Four research questions guided the study and interview guide was used to collect data. The interviews were transcribed, coded and categorised into themes. The themes were interrelated and presented in a narrative form. The findings revealed that women religious in Karen-Nairobi were prevented from self-caring due to overwork, negligence, wrong concept of religious life, poor remuneration, poverty, influence of entrenched gender role, inability to integrate prayer life, the apostolate and community life as well as a misunderstanding of the meaning of self-care. Suggested remedial interventions included awareness creation, greater access to education, designing and use of a self-care curriculum, regular supervision of self-care practice by superiors, the replacement of life-diminishing structures in the religious life and the Church, revision of life and establishing economic sustainability. The implications of the study findings and limitations were discussed, while recommendations for future research and the integration of study findings into the lifestyle of the target group for optimal, holistic well-being and ministerial effectiveness were also proposed.Uche, Anthonia Odilile Download
48 Preventing social media addiction among adolescents using Don Bosco preventive system of education in Oysterbay and Upanga areas of Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaSocial media addiction Addiction can be described as a compulsive craving for something in spite of its negative consequences. Reality has shown today that the notion of addiction has been expanded to include some compulsive behaviours such as gambling, shopping, workaholic, watching pornography, overeating, sex, physical exercise, computer game playing, social media, pair bonding, and wealth acquisition. This study investigated the addiction level among adolescents who have experienced the preventive system of education of Don Bosco compared with those who do not. The key research question guiding this study was: What are the experiences of addiction to social media among the adolescents in Oyster Bay and Upanga area of Dar Es Salaam? This research question is captured in the null hypothesis: there is no significant difference between the level of addiction among adolescents who have access to Don Bosco Preventive System of education and those who do not. Bandura?s social learning and Social cognitive theories inform this study in terms of providing the theoretical lens through which social media addiction is explored and understood as a learnt behaviour which can also be unlearnt given the right environment. The study employed a concurrent triangulation mixed research method in its data collection process using Kimberly Young?s 20-item standardized internet questionnaire to collect quantitative data as well as conducting a focus group discussion to obtain qualitative data. A pilot study was conducted to enable the researcher identify the shortfalls in the instruments such as ambiguity, unclear directions, clustered questions, insufficient space for responses, wrong numbering and spellings among other mistakes. The Cronbach?s Alpha test for the questionnaire shows a result of 0.98 to certify the reliability coefficient of the questionnaire. The sample size was 100 respondents, 25 each from both Upanga and Oysterbay youth centres while there were other 25 respondents each from the playgrounds in Upanga and Oysterbay. The data analysis was done using independent T-test analysis to explore if there were significant difference between the participants? levels of social media addiction and also using thematic analysis to present the qualitative data exploring the in-depth meaning the participants make out of their lived experience of social media addition. The findings of this study show that Don Bosco adolescents showed lower level of addiction to social media in comparison to Non-Don Bosco adolescents. On average, Don Bosco adolescents scored less in the experience of social media addiction. Equally, Non-Don Bosco adolescents showed low level of interpersonal relationship among their peers. This study recommends as follows: That the Preventive system of education be acknowledged as a psycho-spiritual model of education, facilitating aspects of character formation and development. That parents, teachers, and all those saddled with the task of educating the adolescents whenever possible should incorporate the preventive system of education as part of the model for educating the adolescents and finally that the education ministry in Tanzania as a body adopts the preventive system of education into its educational policy.ADETILOYE MATTHEW KAYODE Download
49Psychological effects of trauma among displaced families in Numan and Yola North, Adamawa State, NigeriaPsychological trauma among displaced victims of religious violenceThis research work studied the traumatic events experienced by the people of Numan and Yola North of Adamawa State, where the researcher had worked within the past four years. The experiences of both flood disasters and civil crisis resulted to the displaced families experiencing the trauma of loss. Due to the incidents of natural flood disaster and Boko Haram civil unrest both Yola North and Numan hosted thousands of displaced families and individuals. The problem of the study investigated was the management of the trauma of loss among the displaced families in Numan and Yola North. The main objectives of this research work were to carry out an investigation into the causes responsible for the psychological traumatic stresses and their effects among the displaced families and individuals. The guiding theory for this study was the Rational Emotive Behavior Theory (REBT) of Albert Ellis. The study adopted a quantitative research method. The research design for this study was the survey research design which described the quantitative trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that population. The target population was 334 respondents. The sample population was 100 respondents. The simple random sampling procedure was used to select 20 men, 15 women and 15 youths from Numan and 20 men, 15 women and 15 youths from Yola North. The primary instrument for collecting data was mainly the structured five point likert scale questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze quantitative data with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 and the findings were presented in tables in form of frequencies and percentages based on the research questions. The findings of the study showed that displacement and homelessness were the major causes of stress and trauma among the displaced families and individuals. The conclusion was that the boko haram activities and the flood disaster were the major causes of stress and trauma of loss and providing psycho-spiritual counseling is the most suitable intervention.SIMEON PIUS SA’AD Download
50PSYCHO-SOCIAL WELL-BEING OF ADOLESCENTS OF INCARCERATED MOTHERS AT LANGATA WOMEN PRISON, NAIROBI- KENYA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONAdolescents incarcerated mothersAdolescents’ lives are greatly disrupted when mothers are arrested, and majority of children show negative attitudes, emotional and behavioral problems. In Langata Women Prison there are several mothers with adolescents. Surprisingly little research exists on adolescents whose mothers are incarcerated. The purpose of this research was to explore the psychosocial well-being of adolescents of incarcerated mothers and thus to facilitate a possible psycho-spiritual intervention. The study objectives were; to explore the psychological well-being of adolescents of incarcerated mothers at Langata Women prison; to examine their social well-being; to investigate the coping strategies adopted by these adolescents; and to facilitate Psycho-spiritual intervention on their psychosocial wellbeing. This research was guided by Boss’ theory of ambiguous loss. This qualitative study employed the phenomenological design. The target population comprises 550 adolescents of incarcerated mothers, 250 caregivers, 300 incarcerated mothers and 8 welfare officers. A sample size of 18 participants was obtained using purposive sampling technique. The data were collected using semi structured interview with 8 adolescents, whose mothers are incarcerated at Langata Women prison, 3 care givers and 3 incarcerated mothers at Langata Women prison and focus group discussion with 4 welfare officers from the prison. The trustworthiness of qualitative data was ensured according to the four criteria by Lincoln Cuba (1985). Data were analyzed using the thematic analysis framework Findings were showed that the adolescents experienced emotional destabilization due to the confusion they undergo at different stages of incarceration of their mothers and social isolation as a result of their parents’ imprisonment. These experiences agreed with the ambiguous loss theory thereby affecting one’s psycho-social wellbeing and leaving them bitter and angry towards their mothers and finally end up in exhibiting some antisocial behaviour. The findings of this study provided a better understanding on the lives of adolescents of incarcerated mothers who most often remains as hidden victims under societal shadow. Consequently the study recommends the need of a stable caregiver who provides the adolescent with consistency and a safe place to live while the parent is incarcerated and promotes the relationship with their incarcerated mother. The study recommends the need for Psycho-spiritual counselors to provide emotional support and guidance in order to acquire positive coping abilities which contribute to their psycho-social well-being.AdolesceMERCY THOMAS KALLADAYIL Download
51RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMUNAL VIOLENCE AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG THE AGATU PEOPLE OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INVESTIGATIONCommunal violence and stress disorderPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a universal phenomenon that affects many people today especially in violent and conflict-ridden situations. This study investigated PTSD among the Agatu people of Benue State, Nigeria, who have been under attack from suspected Fulani herdsmen. The main objective of this study was to establish the relationship between communal violence and PTSD among the Agatu people. The study also investigated suitable psycho-spiritual interventions to mitigate PTSD. To achieve these, a descriptive research design was utilized and a quantitative research methodology was adopted. The target population was 16,000 people from four (4) villages in Agatu, namely, Aila, Egba, Enungba and Oshigbudu, who experienced the violence. A purposive random sampling procedure was used to engage 388 participants. The PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and the Brief-COPE were used to assess PTSD and available coping strategies. The data generated was computed using the statistical programme for social sciences (SPSS), version 21. To test the hypotheses of this study, a chi-square test was conducted to establish the relationship of association, a linear regression was used to examine the cause and effect relationship, and a bivariate correlation test and partial correlation test were carried out to assess the strength and direction of the relationship between the variables. A descriptive statistics was used to determine the suitable psycho-spiritual interventions needed. The findings indicated a significant relationship between communal violence and PTSD in Agatu at p ≤ .001. It further revealed a 51.4% PTSD prevalence rate in Agatu and positive coping strategies proved adequate to mitigate PTSD. Consequently, mindfulness based cognitive therapy and personal resilience development were recommended as psycho-spiritual interventions to ameliorate the situation. Denis Enenche Ujah Download
52IMPACT OF FULANI MILITIA ATTACK ON PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS OF KAGOMA- NIGERIA.Psychosocial developmentThe study investigated the impact of the Fulani militia attack on the psychosocial development of adolescent and young adult of kagoma in Kaduna state, Nigeria. The Kagoma people have faced many years of violent attacks by the Fulani herders, leaving many people dead, injured and traumatised. The study was informed by Erik Erickson Theory of psychosocial development. The researcher used the concurrent triangulation method which is qualitative and quantitative in nature. This method aimed at answering the research questions which focused on the impact of Fulani militia attack on the psychosocial development of adolescents and young adults, the coping strategy and psycho-spiritual counseling intervention for the survivors. The target population in this study were 998. The researcher employed the simple random sampling technique to select participants for both the quantitative and qualitative study. The researcher collected the data using interview guide and questionnaires. Validity was determined by content validity in which the research instruments were developed under strict supervision and guidance of the supervisors. Reliability of the questionnaires was ensured by the enter-Rater method. Trustworthiness of the qualitative data was also ensured by the triangulation of data. The findings of the study indicated that the Fulani militia attack have had serious effect on the psychosocial development of the adolescents and young adults in terms of their self-esteem, trauma, sadness and stress. The finding also showed that most respondents favoured the forgiveness therapy as the best counseling technique that would help bring healing to victims of the violence. The study recommended that Kagoma people and political authorities should draw from the resources this study offers by providing help to educate the people on the need to mutually coexist together irrespective of ethnic or religious affiliations.ROCK-MARIO LOMA SUNDAY Download
53INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON ENHANCEMENT OF PASTORAL MINISTRY AMONG CATHOLIC PRIESTS IN TAMALE ARCHDIOCESE, GHANAEmotional inteligenceIt remains mind baffling why intelligent people and leaders, including Catholic priests, are not always successful in dealing with people and handling situations that engage their competence in order to promote the general well-being of those they serve. Emotional Intelligence is said to matter twice more than Intelligent Quotient in achieving leadership success, and this present study investigates the Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Enhancement of Pastoral Ministry among Catholic Priests in Tamale Archdiocese in Ghana. Domains of emotional intelligence considered were self-awareness, self-motivation, social awareness and relationship management. Emotional intelligence influenced pastoral ministry in areas of catechesis, celebration of the Sacraments, human relationship and parish governance. Base on Emotional Intelligence Theory, this study used the concurrent triangulation design within the mixed method. The target population comprised 54 priests and 2,000 lay faithful. A sample size of 34 priests and 160 lay faithful was used for quantitative data using random and stratified sampling techniques, respectively. Interview guide and questionnaires were used as instruments to obtain qualitative and quantitative data respectively. Qualitative data obtained from 6 priests were analyzed using thematic analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship and direction between the independent and dependent variables. Reliabilities of questionnaires were ascertained by the Cronbach’s Alpha method with coefficients (r) as follow: EQ-i =0.87; AAQ-R=0.713; and PC-Q=0.996. The study findings affirmed a strong positive correlation between emotional intelligence and pastoral ministry among catholic priests, and highlighted the need for priests to strive to grow in self-awareness of their emotions, intensify their prayer life to enhance their relationship with God and others. Seminary formators, bishops, and religious superiors should intensify efforts in integrative formation of emotions and intelligence, and ensure concrete ongoing formation for priests on self-awareness and holistic healing through seminars on psycho-spirituality and emotional intelligence.SEBASTIAN NNIABAKPE KASTNER BALANSUAH Download
54Self-care awareness by ANTHONIA UCHEHealth of African women religious in KenyaThe study explored the level of self-care awareness and the influence of its practice on the physical well-being of African Catholic women religious in Karen, Nairobi-Kenya. The research adopted qualitative paradigm, and used phenomenological design. It targeted all African women religious living in Karen. Maximum variation sampling technique was used to select four women‟s religious congregations that participated in the study. Criterion sampling technique was used to select 10 participants for the study, comprising 4 women religious, 2 religious brothers, 2 priests and 2 lay persons. Four research questions guided the study and interview guide was used to collect data. The interviews were transcribed, coded and categorised into themes. The themes were interrelated and presented in a narrative form. The findings revealed that women religious in Karen-Nairobi were prevented from self-caring due to overwork, negligence, wrong concept of religious life, poor remuneration, poverty, influence of entrenched gender role, inability to integrate prayer life, the apostolate and community life as well as a misunderstanding of the meaning of self-care. Suggested remedial interventions included awareness creation, greater access to education, designing and use of a self-care curriculum, regular supervision of self-care practice by superiors, the replacement of life-diminishing structures in the religious life and the Church, revision of life and establishing economic sustainability. The implications of the study findings and limitations were discussed, while recommendations for future research and the integration of study findings into the lifestyle of the target group for optimal, holistic well-being and ministerial effectiveness were also proposed.Uche, Anthonia Odilile Download
55Psychological effects of trauma among displaced families in Numan and Yola North, Adamawa State, NigeriaPsychological trauma among displaced victims of religious violenceThis research work studied the traumatic events experienced by the people of Numan and Yola North of Adamawa State, where the researcher had worked within the past four years. The experiences of both flood disasters and civil crisis resulted to the displaced families experiencing the trauma of loss. Due to the incidents of natural flood disaster and Boko Haram civil unrest both Yola North and Numan hosted thousands of displaced families and individuals. The problem of the study investigated was the management of the trauma of loss among the displaced families in Numan and Yola North. The main objectives of this research work were to carry out an investigation into the causes responsible for the psychological traumatic stresses and their effects among the displaced families and individuals. The guiding theory for this study was the Rational Emotive Behavior Theory (REBT) of Albert Ellis. The study adopted a quantitative research method. The research design for this study was the survey research design which described the quantitative trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that population. The target population was 334 respondents. The sample population was 100 respondents. The simple random sampling procedure was used to select 20 men, 15 women and 15 youths from Numan and 20 men, 15 women and 15 youths from Yola North. The primary instrument for collecting data was mainly the structured five point likert scale questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze quantitative data with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 and the findings were presented in tables in form of frequencies and percentages based on the research questions. The findings of the study showed that displacement and homelessness were the major causes of stress and trauma among the displaced families and individuals. The conclusion was that the boko haram activities and the flood disaster were the major causes of stress and trauma of loss and providing psycho-spiritual counseling is the most suitable intervention.SIMEON PIUS SA’AD Download
56Spirit possession among secondary school students in Karen, KenyaSpirit possession among secondary school students in KenyaSpirit possession is as old as humanity and affects people irrespective of age, race, status and colour. Hence, cases of spirit possession among students in Kenyan secondary schools have been reported for some time now. As a result, this study examined the act of spirit possession among secondary school students in Karen-Nairobi, Kenya and also explored how psycho-spiritual counseling could be a way of intervention. The study was guided by the following objectives: To examine the self-concept of students who experience spirit possession; to explore academic performance of students who experience spirit possession; to explore the role of psycho-spiritual therapy in the management of spirit possession among secondary school students in Karen, Nairobi county. The study is grounded on two theories, namely; Spirit Release Therapy and Transactional Analysis Theory. The literature review provides evidence indicating that spirit possession is a common phenomenon in schools which among other things impact on students? self-concept and academic performance. The research design used was quantitative technique and specifically descriptive survey method. The study sampled 182 participants comprising 167 students, 3 deputy principals and 12 teacher counselors. The researcher?s self-designed questionnaire vetted by supervisors was used to collect data and descriptive analysis such as percentage and frequencies were used to capture the participants? responses to experiences of spirit possession and its influence on self-concept and academic performance. SPSS software package was employed to aid the analysis. As well, Pearson correlations analysis was conducted to explore if there were significant relationship between the variables of the study. Validity was ensured with the help of the researcher?s supervisors and researcher?s own reflection and peer scrutiny while reliability of instruments was tested through piloting. The findings of the study revealed that spirit possession adversely affects the possessed students? self-concept by altering their self-image, self-value and self-acceptance, particularly in leading them to feelings of self-guilt including exhibition of multiple personality. Furthermore, the findings portrayed that experiences of spirit possession also impact on academic performance as students who are possessed by the spirit tend to not only perform poorly but sometimes distract school activities leading to closure of schools. Consequently, the study?s findings revealed that one of the dominant intervention strategies for managing experiences of spirit possession is through psycho-education, which psycho-spiritual therapists in conjunction with other healers are capable of providing. Thus, the study concluded that psycho-spiritual therapists play a crucial role in the treatment and healing of spirit possessed students. It is hoped that these findings will greatly inform all stakeholders including parents, students, teachers and the principals to greater understanding of the existence of spirit possession and the possibility of engaging the services of psycho-spiritual counsellors when need be. Therefore, the study recommends that the services of psycho-spiritual counsellors be consistently engaged in school, particularly in providing seminars, workshops and counselling itself in an attempt to assist students and school administrators manage the experiences of spirit possession whenever such emerges.ODILIA WAIKA Download
57THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES ON THE MATURITY OF PRIESTS IN ABUJA NIGERIA: A PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL COUNSELLING INTERVENTIONPsychosocial issues on the maturity of priestsPriests are formed and trained to live a good life in order to influence people positively. However, they are prone to some negative psychosocial issues in the course of their work. This study, therefore, explored the influence of psychosocial issues on the maturity of priests in Abuja, Nigeria: a psycho-spiritual intervention. Priests experience myriad of psychosocial issues from family dynamics, mental health issues, and societal cum cultural values. The research objectives were: to investigate the common psychosocial issues among priests, to explore how psychosocial issues influence the maturity priests, to discover how psychosocial issues influence the self-care of priests and to examine the need for psycho-spiritual therapeutic counselling interventions in aiding priests’ overall maturity. The study employed the phenomenological design which is qualitative in nature. The targeted population was the 127 diocesan priests of the Catholic Archdiocese of Abuja, Nigeria. 20 participants and 6 participants were purposively drawn from the 127 priests of the Archdiocese for the face-to-face interview sessions and the focus group discussion respectively. Validity and reliability were ensured by expert judgement of supervisors and the trustworthiness of the qualitative data. The study identified isolation, competition, materialism, addiction to social media, identity crisis, and so forth as the psychosocial issues influencing the maturity of priests. The psychosocial issues influence the maturity of priests in the areas of interpersonal relationship, pastoral leadership and self-care. The study through the participants suggested the need for psycho-spiritual therapeutic counselling interventions to assist priests to renew and sustain their maturity needs and output. The psycho-spiritual interventions included; spiritual interventions like self-awareness and integration; and self-care cum supervision, forgiveness, individual psychotherapy and group therapy and support. The study recommends that Rectors, Formators and seminarians should intensify efforts toward integrative formation. Priests need to be aware of their humanity and its psychosocial needs. Priests need to process their psychosocial issues and needs through psycho-spiritual therapeutic counselling; and Bishops, priests and leaders of the lay apostolates need to create awareness about the psychosocial needs of priests and work towards assisting them. ATEP, JOHN-MARY NTOL Download
58AN ANALYSIS OF THE ACADEMIC CHALLENGES FACED BY STUDENTS IN PUBLIC DAY CO-EDUCATIONAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DAGORETTI SUB-COUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTYAcademic challenges facing studentsThe study aims at analyzing various academic challenges facing students in public day co-educational secondary schools in Dagoretti Sub-County. The study is based on a number of objectives: to determine whether economic status of parents affects the academic performance of their children; to find out the socio-cultural factors that affect students academically; to analyze the influence of the geographical environment on students’ academic performance, to explore various school-based challenges that affect students’ performance and finally, to suggest possible measures of resolving these challenges in order to improve student’s performance in Public Day Co-educational Secondary schools in Dagoretti Sub-County. The researcher made use of two research instruments in collecting data. Questionnaires were used for students and teachers/parents. A face to face interview guide was designed to get information from the two Dean of Studies from the two selected schools. The sample size of 78, comprised of 60 students, 14 teachers, 2 parents and 2 Dean of Studies. The researcher made use of SPSS (version 21) to analyze, present and interpret quantitative data. The qualitative data from the interview was used to support the quantitative data. The study found out that the major challenges facing student in public day secondary school were: lack of finance, lack of teaching and learning materials by both teachers and students. The study also established that most of the students cover long distances walking to and from school. Finally the study found out that these challenges can possibly be mitigated through school guidance and counseling programs, increased teachers’ salaries, increase state funding on secondary school, and the employment of more secondary school teachers by the state In conclusion the study recommends that, the government should consider increasing the salaries and the number of secondary school teachers. The school administration should establish a cordial relationship between the high level management, other members of staff and students. Parents/guardians should improve their involvement in their children’s academic welfare. The Parent Teachers Association should work with the school administration to come up with amicable measures of mitigating indiscipline and substance abuse among students. The students on their part should make good use of their free time for private studies, as well as benefit from the modern technological tools such as internet, audio-visual, and computer for their academic work.TANSAM YUONJI ELVIS Download
59AN INVESTIGATION INTO STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF ACADEMIC INTEGRITY, FACTORS INFLUENCING CHEATING BEHAVIORS AMONGST PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NGONG DIVISION, KAJIADO COUNTYAcademic integrity in students perceptionEducation describes the total process of human learning by which knowledge is imparted, faculties trained, and skills developed (Farrant, 1980). Education is essential for the development of any society. The more educated the people of a society are, the civilized and well-disciplined the society might be. It is based on the importance placed on education and the character formation which the society receives based on the integrity of education that motivated this research work. If the society depends on educated people for proper functionality and when in school, students are not expected only to produce awesome certificates but skills which are commensurate to the certificates which they acquire. In a situation where students cheat their way through school, they end up with results that are not theirs or whose skills are not measurable to their grades. Based on these assumptions, every society and every country see integrity as a key factor that should be fostered in our schools so that we might have honest citizens who will be able to deliver services to the society based on what they have learnt in school. Imagine a medical doctor who cheated his way to this profession; many lives will be at risk in his hands because he does not know the job at its best. The research therefore sets out to investigate, what are the factors that influences dishonest practices in public secondary schools in Ngong sub County, Kajiado county. The following objectives guided the study: to establish how curricular factors and teacher practices can influence students dishonesty, to establish if social factors like peer pressure, parental pressure, ranking system and competition could influence cheating behaviors among students and to suggest ways which the problem of cheating in examination can be minimized and thereby improving academic integrity among learners in public secondary schools. The questionnaire was used to collect data from both students and teachers. The findings indicated several factors like peer pressure, ranking of students, and pressure from parents still contributes enormously to influence students cheating behavior. While seeing that in spite of the presence of heavy punishment and sanctions meted on defaulters yet the behavior is not completely wiped out, the further recommendation was to use positive reinforcement, coaching and guidance counseling so as to build esteem, courage and a spirit of hard work among learners so that the cheating behavior can be greatly reduced or ended and the integrity of our education system upheld or improved.NDI DERIC NGONG Download
60ANALYSIS OF PREFECTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN THREE PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UGENYA DISTRICT, SIAYA COUNTYPrefects and academic performanceThe study analysed prefects’ academic performance in three public Secondary Schools in Ugenya District, Siaya County. The objectives of the study were: To identify the composition of the prefect system; To establish the extent to which prefects play their leadership duties and responsibilities; To find out the challenges facing prefects; To find a way forward for the improvement of academic performance of school prefects in public secondary schools; To explore the causes of the decline in academic performance of school prefects. The study sample size was 61selected using purposive sampling. The study used a descriptive survey method. The study found that most secondary schools used a controlled democracy to select prefects. Among the duties performed by prefects were: maintaining discipline in school; ensuring silence in class and collecting exercise books for marking; reporting problems to the administration; supervising cleaning; maintaining order in class; supervising manual. The study identified the challenges facing prefects including inability to balance leadership responsibilities with academic work; occasional disobedience from students; non-compliance to regulations; pressure from classmates; sacrificing academic work to supervise duties; students abuse drugs and alcohol and hence become unruly. The academic performance of most prefects was found to be average. The causes of academic performance decline among prefects found included many duties and responsibilities; absenteeism from class; overconfidence; overconcentration on leadership matters to the detriment of academic work; alienation by other students and stress from daily doses of negative reports. The study recommends that prefects should strive to balance between their leadership roles in school and their academic work. They should for instance draw timetables and adhere to them to be able to manage their time effectively. Prefects should create harmony and good working relationship with fellow students. Teachers should guide prefects in their leadership roles through workshops, retreats and seminars. They should reduce some of the duties and responsibilities given to prefects as a way of allowing them to have ample time to concentrate on academic work. Teachers should train such prefects on time management, leadership skills, counseling and human relations. Teachers should also educate students on the need to cooperate and respect prefects. Teachers should give remedial classes and special attention to weak prefects to help them improve academically. The principals should ensure that prefects are not overburdened with tasks that belong to teachers. They should take prefects for benchmarking to other schools where students perform well both academically and in leadership. They should also provide adequate tools to prefects and students in general for manual work so as to spend minimal time in community work. Principals should employ cleaning staff to give both prefects and students ample time to concentrate on their core business which is to study.AGILO ELIJAH OSENA Download
61FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BOYS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG DIVISION, KAJIADO COUNTYAcademic performance of boys in secondary schoolsThe needs of the boy child have been relegated to the back seat for many years as more focus is directed to uplifting the girl child in all fronts. It is for this reason that a study focusing on the boy child education was necessary. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors influencing the academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Kajiado County. The study was guided by the following objectives: to find out whether peer pressure influences the academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Kajiado County; to examine the nature of the school environment in influencing academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Kajiado County; to investigate the behavioural problems in influencing the academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Kajiado County; to determine whether literacy skills influence the academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Kajiado County. The study adopted quantitative research method and enlisted 87 participants who were randomly selected. Descriptive analysis of the data was computed in terms of item analysis using frequencies and percentages. The findings were presented using tables and diagrams. The study established that peer pressure has the potential to influence the academic performance of boys either negatively or positively. The study concluded that many schools that were involved in this study offered equal opportunities to both girls and boys in equal measure although boys are likely to be suspended from school compared to girls due to their naturally mischievous behavior. This calls for involvement of boys in programs such as mentorship to empower them academically. The study recommends empowerment of the boy child in all spheres including mentorship and life skill programs in order to improve their academic performance and make them responsible citizens.AGNES MIRIAM OJUNG’A Download
62AN ANALYSIS OF THE ACADEMIC CHALLENGES FACED BY STUDENTS IN PUBLIC DAY CO-EDUCATIONAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DAGORETTI SUB-COUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTYAcademic challenges faced by studentsThe study aims at analyzing various academic challenges facing students in public day co-educational secondary schools in Dagoretti Sub-County. The study is based on a number of objectives: to determine whether economic status of parents affects the academic performance of their children; to find out the socio-cultural factors that affect students academically; to analyze the influence of the geographical environment on students’ academic performance, to explore various school-based challenges that affect students’ performance and finally, to suggest possible measures of resolving these challenges in order to improve student’s performance in Public Day Co-educational Secondary schools in Dagoretti Sub-County. The researcher made use of two research instruments in collecting data. Questionnaires were used for students and teachers/parents. A face to face interview guide was designed to get information from the two Dean of Studies from the two selected schools. The sample size of 78, comprised of 60 students, 14 teachers, 2 parents and 2 Dean of Studies. The researcher made use of SPSS (version 21) to analyze, present and interpret quantitative data. The qualitative data from the interview was used to support the quantitative data. The study found out that the major challenges facing student in public day secondary school were: lack of finance, lack of teaching and learning materials by both teachers and students. The study also established that most of the students cover long distances walking to and from school. Finally the study found out that these challenges can possibly be mitigated through school guidance and counseling programs, increased teachers’ salaries, increase state funding on secondary school, and the employment of more secondary school teachers by the state In conclusion the study recommends that, the government should consider increasing the salaries and the number of secondary school teachers. The school administration should establish a cordial relationship between the high level management, other members of staff and students. Parents/guardians should improve their involvement in their children’s academic welfare. The Parent Teachers Association should work with the school administration to come up with amicable measures of mitigating indiscipline and substance abuse among students. The students on their part should make good use of their free time for private studies, as well as benefit from the modern technological tools such as internet, audio-visual, and computer for their academic work.TANSAM YUONJI ELVIS Download
63AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FACTORS INFLUENCING READING CULTURE, IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS, IN DAGORRETI, SUBCOUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTYReading culture and the factors that influence them.The goal of this study was to explore the factors influencing reading culture, in public secondary schools, in Dagoretti, sub-county, Nairobi. The study is guided by the following aims:  To examine the perception of students towards avid (enthusiastic) reading  To establish the role of parents in encouraging reading culture  To determine the role of teachers in enhancing reading culture among secondary school students  To examine the role of availability of reading resources in promoting a reading among Secondary school students In carrying out this study, questionnaires were administered to 100 students, 10 teachers and three librarians. The data gather from the respondents were analysed and interpreted. The target population comprised of three secondary schools of form three and four. The study revealed that the role of parents and teachers encourages and enhances reading culture hence, the teachers are committed in their profession. And most especially the availability of resources used in secondary schools. The research accepts that reading is very essential in all round development of the learners, as it is made up of techniques and processes that can be used for developing the various methods that involve vocabulary development and other areas of academic training. Claiming to the above findings, the researcher recommends that the role of teachers in enhancing reading culture should be very much considered with commitment. The availability of reading resources in secondary schools and the perception or passion of students towards reading culture should be view as an important target for developing knowledge, attitude, and skills. ATAKWU ISRAEL DAVID Download
64AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ENROLMENT OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG SUB-COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTYEnrollment of biology students in secondary schoolsStudents’ choice of science subjects in secondary schools in Kenya is very poor (Joshua, 2013). Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the enrolment of biology students in secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County. The objectives of the study were: To investigate how attitude, affect the enrolment of biology; To determine how teaching methodology affects the enrolment of biology; To find out how teaching and learning resources affects the enrolment of biology and To establish how teacher motivation affects enrolment of biology. To achieve these objectives, the researcher administered questionnaires to the students and teachers from three selected schools in the study area. The students were sampled randomly, while the teachers were purposively sampled. The study use survey design approach and enlisted 146 respondents comprising 140 students and 6 teachers drawn from Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County. Students and teachers were randomly selected while principals were purposively selected. The responses were analyzed and presented in figures and tables. The study established that both teachers and students in secondary schools had a positive attitude towards biology, they liked the subject and were eager to learn it. Teachers were found to use of a variety of teaching methodologies (81%), they were friendly (80%), they strived to motivate and encourage students to have interest in learning biology (100%). The schools had adequate biology textbooks, including other varieties of teaching and learning resources (72%). However, there were some challenges such as inadequate biology materials, boring teachers, absenteeism among teachers and late coverage of syllabus. The study recommends that the schools should engage adequate trained biology teachers and provide adequate teaching and learning resource.YENWONG CYLAS MBIVNJO Download
65FACTORS INFLUENCING FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN GEOGRAPHY IN FEMALE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RONGO SUB –COUNTY, MIGORI COUNTYFemale students performance in geographyThis study sought to examine the “Factors influencing female students’ performance in geography in three selected secondary schools in Rongo Sub-County”. The study was guided by the following objectives: to determine ways in which teaching methodology influences female students’ performance in geography; to establish ways in which provision of teaching and learning resources influence female students’ performance in geography and to establish how female students’ attitude towards geography influences performance in subject. The study adopted the theory of social cognitive theory with the descriptive survey design as the research methodology. The sample compromised of 62 students and 5 Geography teachers drawn from the three selected secondary schools (A, B and C) including the key informant persons for the research. Questionnaires were used for both students and teachers in order to obtain relevant information for the study. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and interpretation and presentation were done by the use of tables, charts and graphs. Findings of the study revealed that teaching and learning methods such as small group discussion, lecture, demonstration, question and answer were effectively used. However field trip, geography laboratory, internet, visual aids and atlas, were much less considered in teaching and learning geography. The findings of the study showed that teaching and learning resources such as geography textbooks, maps and globes are available in the schools and are used in the class of geography. The findings also revealed that majority of students have negative attitudes towards geography as a subject and that only few of them have a positive attitude towards geography as a subject. The findings have also revealed that, all teachers have been trained to teach geography and have bachelor of degrees and above. Basing on the findings, the researcher made the following recommendations: Female students should be motivated, encouraged and made to know that, geography is not a difficult subject to study. Teachers should give importance on the use of the following teaching and learning methods in their teaching and learning geography to female students: field trip, visual aids presentation. Field trips should be promoted in teaching and learning geography among secondary schools for female students.AOKO HELLEN Download
66FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING PROGRAM IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS, IN LODWAR , TURKANA COUNTYImplementation of guidance and counselling programThe study assessed the guidance and counseling services in secondary schools in Lodwar, Turkana County, with a view, to determine factors affecting the effective implementation of the program. The guidance and counseling program was promoted and introduced in school after the realization that academic work alone was not enough to help students; however literature has shown that schools are facing challenges such as: school dropout, indiscipline, unrest in schools, burning of schools, exam malpractice and many more. The above mentioned problems raised questions about the effectiveness of the guidance and counseling services in schools. Three variables: the availability of guidance and counseling materials, the teacher counselors’ level of training and the attitude of both the teachers and the students towards the guidance and counseling services, were considered and investigated as factors affecting the effective implementation of guidance and counseling. The study was quantitative in nature, and used questionnaires which included both open and close ended items, to collect data. The population included the Head teachers, the teacher counselors and the students. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS, and the presentation was done by objective of the study. The findings revealed that the effective implementation of guidance and counseling was affected by limited number of teacher counselors in schools, the level of training of the teacher counselors, the availability of guidance and counseling materials and the negative attitude of the students towards the program. Furthermore, the findings revealed that teachers do have a positive attitude towards the guidance and counseling program and considered it to be important in school. The study has helped in the understanding of the issues affecting the guidance and counseling services in secondary schools, in Lodwar, based on the finding the following are proposed as a way of strengthening the program: increase the number of teacher counselors in schools, to assist the program with resources, materials, to make sure teacher counselors have an academic qualification in guidance and counseling and above all, a general re-evaluation of the program in important. APOLLINAIRE KAPONDO KASULWE Download
67EFFECT OF EXPANSION ON PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS: A CASE OF KENYA COMMERCIAL BANKEXPANSION ON PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKSThis study aimed to determine the effect of expansion on the performance of commercial banks: a case study of Kenya commercial banks. The reseach objectives were to determine the effect of acquisition on earning per share, mergers on liquidity, strategic alliance on gearing ratio of the Kenya commercial banks. The instrument used to gather information was the document analysis guide. A total of 3 tables were used to get the number of mergers, acquisition, strategic alliances of Kenya commercial bank from the year 2010 to 2016 also the value of earning per share, mergers and strategic alliance. The data was analyzed using tables, graphs. The study concluded that there is a positive relationship between expansion strategies and performance of commercial banks. POWA IMONA SASKIA Download
68MANAGEMENT INFLUENCE ON AUDITING OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN CONSTITUENCY DEVELOPMENT FUNDS: A CASE OF WESTLANDS CONSTITUENCY, NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYAINFLUENCE ON AUDITING OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTSKenya’s CDF was a concept implemented in 2003 through the Act of parliament, whose aim was to address the challenges at grassroots level through the provision of funds to empowerment of community-based projects in all constituencies of Kenya. The issues was on Management influence on auditing of financial statements in the CDF in Westlands constituency. Poor finance management, rather than inadequate finance is the 8 bane of local governments’ inability to achieve substantial development in their domain was the statement of the problem. The objectives were to determine effects of organizational structure on presentation and accuracy of financial statements, to investigate the extent of management control on record keeping and book keeping procedure and to investigate the extent to which management’s perception affects overall audit of financial statements. The study used descriptive design that contains qualitative and quantitative design and the data was primary which was collected with the use of questionnaires where the respondents were the CDF finance department and the CDF committee. The study findings were that the structure of CDF has a considerable level of influence as far as auditing is concerned, there is segregation of duties among CDF financial management where staff and specific targets have been assigned to the staff and reports are presented on time and this is due to organized record keeping procedures and CDF financial statements are regularly audited and the management is in favor of the audit. In conclusion the findings indicate that the management encourage auditing of financial statements because Audits help in the understanding of the financial status. It also reduces costs and improves efficiency and effectiveness NAKONYI CHRISTINE KWAMBOKA Download
69THE EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICAL JARGONS ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN, NGONG DIVISION KAJIADO COUNTYBIOLOGICAL JARGONS ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCEThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of biological jargons on students’ academic performance in biology in public secondary schools, Ngong Division, Kajiado County. The study was guided by the following objectives; to explore students’ perceptions towards biological jargons; to examine whether or not teaching methodology influence the grasping of biological jargons; and to determine whether the understanding of biological jargons has effects on students’ academic performance. Descriptive survey was used in the collection of data because of its reliability in collecting quantitative data and in dealing with large populations. Probability (simple random and stratified sampling procedures) and non-probability (purposeful sampling procedure) sampling methods were involved in sample selection. Questionnaires for both students and teachers were used to collect data. The study used a (30%) sample size that comprises of one hundred (100) respondents: ninety (90) biology students and biology ten (10) teachers. Data collected was both qualitative and quantitative. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21 program was used for coding and analyzing quantitative data. Qualitative data was used as a backup for the quantitative data. The study concluded that biological jargons have a role to play on students’ academic performance. Students perceive that biology has many difficult jargons that make students dislike biology. The study found that students do not pronounce nor write jargons correctly thus they are being penalized for that. Above students unable to understand biology concepts because of the heavy jargon load. Students should have self-interest if they are to learn biology. The study recommended teachers and students to ensure that jargons are properly explained and understood. Curriculum developers should only include jargons that are necessary at secondary education level. NGULUBE BOSTON CHAIPILAH Download
70CHALLENGES AFFECTING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ORAL NARRATIVES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BUTERE SUB-COUNTY KAKAMEGA COUNTYTEACHING AND LEARNING OF ORAL NARRATIVESThe purpose of this study was to investigate the challenges facing teaching of oral narratives in Butere Sub-county, Kakamega County. The study was based on the following objectives: To find out the attitude of learners towards oral narratives; To examine the effectiveness of methods used to teach oral narratives; To find out the adequacy and status of teaching and learning resources for oral narratives and to establish the possible solutions to the challenges of teaching oral narratives. The study adopted mixed research design that involved mixing of quantitative and qualitative research. It also applied the survey method that was ideal for collecting data that is intended to describe a population’s characteristics that is too large to observe directly. The study enlisted 76 participants comprising 20 teachers and 56 students. The study concluded that teaching and learning of oral narratives has encountered a myriad of challenges from various stakeholders such as learners, teachers, schools and the government. Learners were found to have a negative attitude towards oral narratives, while teachers use poor methods that are not effective. The schools do not provide adequate and up to date oral narratives teaching and learning resources, while the government integrated English and literature, thereby minimizing the time, scope and depth of the subject coverage. Some of the recommendations given were that students should strive to have a positive attitude; teachers should improve their teaching methods; schools should provide adequate and up to date resources while the government should come up with policies that promote teaching and learning of oral narratives.FLORA AYIERA ANJIRA Download
71CHALLENGES FACING GIRLS IN CO-EDUCATIONAL DAY SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LANG’ATA DIVISION, NAIROBI COUNTYCHALLENGES FACING GIRLS IN CO-EDUCATIONAL DAY SECONDARY SCHOOLS The purpose of the study was to establish the challenges facing girls in co-educational day secondary schools in Lang’ata Division, Nairobi County. The specific objectives were: To find out the challenges facing girls in day co-educational secondary schools; to find out the perception of girls on equal opportunity in accessing education; to establish the perception of the society on girl child education and to find possible solutions to the challenges facing girls in day co-educational secondary schools. The study enlisted 239 respondents using stratified, simple random sampling and purposive method. The sample comprised 209 students and 30 teachers drawn from the co-educational day secondary schools. Data was collected using questionnaires. The study established that girls in co-educational day secondary schools face myriad of challenges such as home chores, poor learning environment, lack of basic necessities, poverty, lack of boarding facilities, negative peer influence, lack of guidance and counseling, lack of transport, sexual harassment, lack of role models and early marriages. However, girls are perceived to be able to do well in sciences and they have equal educational opportunities with boys. The society also supports that educating a girl has benefits and that no gender is inferior to the other. Female Genital Mutilation is also no longer a big threat to the girls as it is losing its importance as a rite of passage in many communities. The study recommends that parents and guardians offer good parenting, provide required school necessities, follow up on academic matters of their girls and allow them ample time to study at home. Schools should offer life skills, regularly mentorship, guidance and counseling, invite motivational speakers, harness girls’ talents and abilities, involve girls in extra curriculum activities and offer transport at subsidized rates. The government should increase its budgetary allocation to secondary schools, remove or zero-rate taxes for sanitary towels and implement affirmative action.FRANCIS USOH Download
72CHALLENGES FACING PERFORMANCE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (M.I.S) IN KENYAN PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES: A CASE OF MARIST INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGECHALLENGES FACING PERFORMANCE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMSThis research investigates and describes the concept of awareness about the challenges facing the performance of Management Information System in Marist International University College. The study examines the possible drawbacks which may be facing the Management of information system (M.I.S) and the reasons for the problems. The topic was chosen as the relevance of what is going on in Marist International University College as a private university. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. The results showed there was a relationship between the challenges facing the Management of Information System and the top level management and support towards the emphasis of advanced computer systems and a proper intervention of pricing. Also there is a positive relationship between top management support and user satisfaction. Thus, there were different factors accused of causing the challenges facing the Management of Information System in Marist International University College. Technological factors (System quality, Information quality, and Service quality), University’s factors such as financial status, Operational challenges such as bad communication, even the increasing of cost, Technical challenges such as knowing the technical needs and system security so as to deal with cyber warfare and attacks.The study recommends that employees who are well skilled in MIS should also devote their efforts in sharing the Knowledge in networking among the employees with fewer skills. The management should also organize and support programs such as training despite the resources that would be used, the training to promote skills would make the whole exercise a success. Management should encourage regular employee training in order for the employees to obtain necessary technical skills. This process would help reduce dependence of external sourcing of costly technical staff. Finally the study suggests that the performance of Management of Information System was not only affected by the challenges mentioned such as top management support, emphasis of computer systems, management knowledge, pricing/expenses/ high costs, but it was also affected by the new technological advancement in general including use of new tools and equipment so as to avoid errors, even the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI). But often, top management support should be in to consideration to prevent the challenges facing the Management of Information System in Marist International University College.ISIDORY LAURENT MWITA Download
73CHALLENGES FACING SCIENCE TEACHING IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LANG’ATA SUB-COUNTY, NAIROBI: KENYASCIENCE TEACHING IN PUBLIC SECONDARY Science teachers have been often faced with challenges in teaching profession. The overall aim of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges facing science teachers in public secondary schools in Lang’ata Sub-county. The study was guided by the three research objectives; (1) To identify the effects of teaching and learning resources in teaching science subjects in public secondary schools in Lang’ata sub-county, (2) To determine the teacher related factors in teaching sciences in public secondary schools in Lang’ata sub-county, (3) To find out the methodology of teaching that science teachers use in public secondary schools in Lang’ata Sub-county. The study adopted a quantitative data analysis. The population for the study was science teachers and students in Lang’ata sub-county in Nairobi. The research adopted a random sampling technique on a target population of 3 schools. Sample size of 9 teachers and 39 students was drawn from the teachers and the students from forms three and four. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaires. The study generated quantitative data which was coded and entered into Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22.0) and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study noted that teaching and learning of science subjects in public secondary schools is being faced by a myriad of challenges ranging from lack of adequate teaching and learning resources to negative attitude towards sciences to shortage of physics teachers to poor teaching methodology and poor remunerations and motivation of science teachers by their employers. Students’ class participation is also wanting while most of them have negative attitude towards sciences. The study recommends that teachers, school administration and the government have a critical role to play in order to reduce some of the challenges facing teaching of sciences in public secondary schools. ONESMUS. N. NDALI Download
74CHALLENGES FACING SPORTING ACTIVITIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG SUB-COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTYSPORTING ACTIVITIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARYThe purpose of this study was to investigate “the challenges facing sporting activities in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County”. The study was guided by the following objectives: To investigate whether inadequate of personnel is a challenge to sporting activities, to investigate whether lack of equipment is a challenge to sporting activities, to examine whether students’ interests are challenges to sporting activities and to find out whether inadequate time is a major challenge to sporting activities in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County. The study was grounded on the expectancy theory by Victor Vroom and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods approach and the survey research design was used. The study enlisted 108 respondents comprising students, teachers and trainers drawn from public schools in Ngong Sub-County. These were selected through stratified, simple random and purposive sampling techniques. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data. The study established that most of the schools under study were understaffed in terms of sports personnel and were lacking adequate facilities and equipment. The study recommends that the schools’ administration and the government agencies involved should strive to hire qualified and adequate trainers and equip the schools with adequate and quality equipment and facilitiesPETER ONAH Download
75THE CHALLENGES FACING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF POETRY: A CASE STUDY OF SCHOOLS IN LAVINGTON ZONE, NAIROBI COUNTY- KENYATEACHING AND LEARNING OF POETRYPoetry is an important subject in our society. It is through poetry that students enhance their listening, speaking and writing skills. Poetry also helps individuals in communities have improved communication, expression and comprehension techniques. It also makes languages colorful and interesting through the application of figures of speech and other language techniques learnt in the subject. However, the teaching and learning of poetry has faced a myriad of challenges throughout the years. This has resulted in poor performances in the subject. It has also affected the communication, comprehension and expressionism from generation to generation in a degrading manner. Therefore, it is important for us to identify the challenges facing the teaching and learning of poetry in schools. This study aims to establish the challenges facing the teaching and learning of poetry in secondary schools in Lavington Zone, in Nairobi County. The schools selected for this study involved both public and private schools that included Loreto Convent Musongari and Lavington Mixed Secondary Schools. The findings developed from this research will provide vital information to decision makers on key policy issues regarding the subject. This will subsequently result in the improved provisions that would facilitate better performances in the subject. OUMA CLIFFORD SIDANDI Download
76CHALLENGES FACING THE EDUCATION OF STREET CHILDREN IN LANGATA SUB-COUNTY, NAIROBI-KENYA EDUCATION OF STREET CHILDREN The purpose of this study was to analyse challenges facing the education of street children in Langata Sub-County, Kenya. The study was guided by the following objectives: to identify the challenges hindering proper implementation of education of street children in Langata Sub-County; to determine the influence of community participation in the sustainability of the street children who are in schools in Langata Sub-County; to find out the perception and attitude of the different stakeholders towards the education of street children in Langata Sub-County; and to set appropriate recommendations that will assist in the intervention of the street children education. The study was guide by an eclectic approach The Human Rights Theories by Mayfield, J. (2003), Participatory communication theory by Anasu-Kyeremeh, (2005,) and Interdependence Theory why (Actknowledge 2013), The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methods particularly the use of descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised Schools going street children, their teachers and Street Children Rehabilitation centers. All the respondents were selected using purposive sampling. The data for this study was collected using questionnaires. The analysis was done using descriptive analysis methods where the results were summarized using tables and charts. The study found out that majority of the street children are from families which are dysfunctional; Poverty has also played a role in forcing children from homes to migrate to the streets in search of basic needs. This factor has contributed to massive drop out of children from schools. The study found that sometimes the public encourages them to come to the street because they offer them little jobs and little pay. The study found out that some of the characteristics of street children’s rehabilitation centers and institutions in Langata Sub-County includes; have no specially trained staff on how to handle these children and so some of the teachers gave unnecessary punishment to the children. Some of the teachers abused the children physically and sexually. They do not have some of the facilities that help in rehabilitation. They do not have counselors or social workers to facilitate in rehabilitation of these children at the center.MUBANGA DAVIES Download
77CHALLENGES FACING THE USE OF FIELD TRIP METHOD IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG ZONE, NGONG SUB-COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTYTHE USE OF FIELD TRIP METHOD IN TEACHING AND LEARNINGThe study examined the challenges facing the use of field trip in teaching and learning of Biology in public schools in Ngong Zone, Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County. The objectives of the study were: To determine the extent to which field trip is used in teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools; To appraise the significance of field trip in Secondary schools, and to determine the challenges affecting the use of field trips in secondary schools. To achieve these objectives, the researcher administered questionnaires to the students and teachers from three selected schools in the study area. The students were sampled randomly, while the teachers were purposively sampled. The responses were analyzed and presented in figures and tables. The findings indicated that, majority of public secondary schools from the study area have knowledge about field trip method. Field trips were marked to be of great significant in Biology since it helps in acquiring new biological knowledge. However, students are taken for field trip once in a year. The suggested topics suitably taught using field trip instruction include: genetics, ecology, evolution, locomotion in mammals, reproduction in plants and animals and coordination in plants and animals. The findings indicated that challenges like high costs hinder the use of field trip method. The researcher recommended that, the Government in relation with the Ministry of Education should employ more Biology teachers. The government should also provide Public Secondary Schools in the study area with resources that facilitate the use of field trips. In addition, the researcher suggested areas for further study as follows: Effects of Field trip on learning outcome in biology in Public Secondary Schools; Factors influencing the use of field trip method in Biology in Public Secondary Schools; Impact of field trip on academic performance of students in Biology in Public Secondary Schools; The role of school administration on the use of field trip in Biology in Public Secondary Schools, and attitudes of teachers towards the use of Field trip in Biology in Public Secondary Schools. MISHECK MKANTHAMA Download
78INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS ON ACEDEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG SUB-COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTYINFLUENCE OF TEACHERS ON ACEDEMIC PERFORMANCE The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of teachers on academic performance in mathematics in Public Secondary Schools in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County. The objectives of this study were: To examine the influence of teachers’ methodology on academic performance in mathematics in Public Secondary Schools; to find out the influence of teachers’ experience on academic performance in mathematics in Public Secondary Schools, and to investigate the influence of teachers’ preparedness on academic performance in mathematics in Public Secondary Schools. To achieve these objectives, the researcher administered questionnaires to the students and teachers from three selected secondary schools in the study area. The students were sampled randomly, while teachers were purposively sampled. The responses were analyzed and presented in figures and tables. The findings showed that, the majority of the teachers use different teaching methodologies in teaching mathematics in order to meet the needs of the learners. The findings also presented that, teachers’ teaching experience reinforces learners’ performance in mathematics. Teachers were found to have knowledge and practical skills that help them in teaching mathematics that has a positive effect on the learners’ performance. The findings also showed that, mathematics teachers take their time to prepare instructional resources before the actual date of the lesson. Basing on the findings, the researcher made some recommendations which include; more qualified mathematics teachers should be employed, and government should provide some resource materials, such as overhead projectors, projectors, computers and text books. The parents and guardians should take an active part in the affairs of their children by providing them with adequate academic requirements. Students should be motivated to like mathematics by use of a variety of exciting teaching methodologies. CHIKANDWE MARK Download
79INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS ON ACEDEMIC PERFORMANCEANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF BIOLOGY.The study was carried out in public secondary schools in Langata Division, Nairobi County. It investigated on the analysis of factors influencing the choice of Biology among students in public secondary schools. The following were the objectives that guided the entire project: I. To find out how peer group influence the choice of Biology. II. To investigate on whether career opportunities affect the selection of Biology. III. To establish on how performance in Biology influence learners’ selection of the subject. IV. To find out how teaching methodologies determine the choice of Biology. The research used survey design. The target population included teachers and students. The sample comprised 189 participants of which 176 were students and 13 were teachers. Data collection instruments included the questionnaires. The study targeted all the public secondary schools within the division. This target population was therefore purposively selected.BUGINGO NZITUKUZE CLEMENTINE Download
80THE CONTRIBUTION OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES IN IMPROVING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KAJIADO NORTHCONTRIBUTION OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES IN IMPROVING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCEThe study sought to assess the contributions of co-curricular activities in improving academic performance among secondary schools in Kajiado North. The objectives were to: Establish the contribution of co-curricular activities to academic performance in secondary schools in Kajiado North; Assess the perception of learners towards co-curricular activities and assess the academic mean scores of the schools that actively participated or did not participate in co-curricular activities. It used survey design with qualitative and quantitative aspects. The sample comprised of 61 respondents who were randomly sampled. The study established that co-curricular activities contribute to improvement of academic performance. It is therefore not a waste of time as implied in some quarters. This is because they make students more focused and responsible in their studies, encourage group work, promote good study habits and guarantees students good marks. The perception of learners is that they enjoy most of those activities although some of the ones they like are not offered while others lack talent in some co-curricular activities leading to avoidance. The schools also perform well both in academics and co-curricular activities and they even think that they can perform even better if more students are involved in those activities. The study recommends that parents and teachers should support their sons and daughters by encouraging them to participate in co-curricular activities and nurture their talents while students should engage more in co-curricular activities as they are beneficial to them in various ways. The principals should make sure that the schools are equipped with adequate facilities and coaches and introduce a variety of activities in order to give students a chance to participate in activities of their choice. The government should increase funding to the secondary schools and set aside some adequate budget for facilities and equipment for co-curricular activities. It should also establish more talent academies to develop students’ specific talents to the maximum. They should also deploy adequate coaches to train students on different co-curricular activitiesTOBIAS OLODO Download
81CONTRIBUTION OF PARENTAL ACADEMIC INVOLVEMENT ON STUDENTS’ DISCIPLINE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DAGORETTI SOUTH DIVISIONCONTRIBUTION OF PARENTAL ACADEMIC INVOLVEMENT ON STUDENTS’ DISCIPLINE.The purpose of this study is to investigate contribution of parental involvement in academic activities on students discipline in secondary schools in Dagoretti South Division. The study was guided by three research questions which are:-to what extent do parents involve themselves in academic activities, does parental involvement in the academic activities influence student discipline and what are the challenges of parental involvement in academic activities in Dagoretti south division secondary schools. The study had a target population included 24 teachers of three types of schools in Dagoretti South Division, 28 students from a Boys’ only school, 28 students from a Girls only school and 28 students from a Mixed school all in Dagoretti South Division. The questioners where later analyzed by the researcher aided by Microsoft Excel and micro soft word processors where qualified data in form of tables and figures was presented. The study indicated that some of the contributions of parental involvement include often having time for their children and attending the school meetings when called upon. The study also did make a note of parents’ roles in their child’s discipline are important especially through guiding and counseling technique. The study as well noted that the response of teachers on parental involvement enhances good communication and cooperation among teachers and parents. This study proposed that the Parent - teachers association should be legalised as a recommendation by the researcher as it is also an important spectacle in obtaining parents’ interests. In some cases, it is seen that the parents and the teachers differ on the decisions that directly affect the student and by legalizing it hence the decisions made will be appropriate for the sake of the students, as well as for suitable discipline.MERCY NUNGARI KANG’ETHE Download
82IN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT LEADERSHIP PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG DIVISION, KAJIADO COUNTY.FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT LEADERSHIP The Research aimed at giving the analysis of the factors affecting student leadership in public Secondary schools in Ngong Division, Kajiado County. The study was guided by some formulated research questions in relation with the research topic on factors affecting student leadership in Secondary schools, some challenges facing student leaders, teachers influence, peers influence and how the school culture can affect the execution of duties of student leaders in public secondary schools. Therefore, the Researcher employed a mixed and purposive research design to ensure that the targeted population in both schools of Kibiko and Ooolua stood the equal chance of participating in the study. Purposive sampling was employed in order to target the student leaders, teachers and school principals of the both schools. Nevertheless, the total targeted population included 70 Respondents. From 70 Respondents, 52 were students, 8 student leaders, 8 teachers and finally 2 school principals. The researcher intended to involve students of form 2 to form 4 because of their wider experience of secondary school life but more importantly the researcher assumed that at this stage, teachers start to expose students to leadership responsibilities. Certainly,68 Respondents answered and gave feedback to the questionnaire that was used to collect data. Therefore, the collected data was then analyzed, organized and arranged according to each research question and presented using frequency tables, pie charts and bar graphs. The results showed that several factors determine student leadership in secondary schools. The findings indicated that peers and teachers affect positively or negatively student leadership in secondary schools. All the teachers Respondents, students and principals agreed that teachers and peers play a vital role in shaping leadership qualities among students. The study showed that motivation, school culture and parents to affects the well being of students holding leadership roles in secondary schools. In other words, the study concluded that teachers should involve students in selection of their representatives and also motivation of student leaders is very important in secondary schools. DAKA JOSEPH Download
83EFFECT OF CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT ON THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF KENYA COMMERCIAL BANKCREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT.Generally, banks make profit in form of interest from lending credit to customers. However, the challenge of not keeping up to such agreement have left many banks at the losing end, thus customers default to pay in time, while others default completely. This affect the financial performance of the bank. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of credit risk management on the financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya: a case study of Kenya Commercial Bank. The study was guided by the following objectives: to investigate the effect of credit risk management on the financial performance of Kenya Commercial Bank; to find out the strategies used by the Kenya Commercial Bank to manage credit risk and to establish the policies used to mitigate credit risk in the Kenya Commercial Bank. The study used descriptive survey design and 7 credit risk officers participated in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 was used to get descriptive statistics. The study established that there is a relationship between credit risk and the profitability of the bank. However, in as much as the bank make profits from credit awarded to customers, high credit risk can lead to liquidity of the bank. The study found out that the bank has some strategies for mitigating credit risk such as Board of Directors approving credit risk policies, repayment ability as the major factor that determine the amount to lend to customers, growing deposit to maintain loan to deposit ratio and internal audit. However, credit quality reports are not prepared, credit risk assessment is carried out annually which is not enough, training on credit risk management are rarely conducted and the bank does no use credit referencing in awarding credit to customers. The study recommends that credit quality reports should be prepared monthly, credit risk assessment should be carried out regularly, credit referencing should be used in awarding credit to customers and credit risk officers should be taken for more training, workshops, short courses and seminars to better understand the ever-changing economy market.MUNENE DERRICK KURIA Download
84 DETERMINANTS OF CAREER CHOICE AMONG STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BUTULA DISTRICTDETERMINANTS OF CAREER CHOICE AMONG STUDENTS.The purpose of this study was to establish the determinants of career choice among students in public secondary schools in Butula District. The study evolved along the following questions: What are the motivating factors of career choice among students in public secondary schools?, does parental occupation and level of education determine career choice among students in public secondary schools?, and lastly do perceived employment opportunities influence career choice among students in public secondary schools?.Descriptive survey design was used to collect data. Probability sampling; simple random sampling procedure was used for sample selection of students and teachers. The data was collected using questionnaires for both teachers and students while interview guide was used for parents. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze data. The quantitative data collected was coded and entered into an SPSS program version 20 for analysis. Quantitative data was used to support the qualitative findings of the study. This enabled the researcher to understand better about the determinants of career choice among students in public secondary schools in Butula District. The study concluded that several factors influence career choice among students in public secondary schools such as economic benefits or the perceived remuneration, working environment, peer pressure as well as the media. The educational level of students’ parents motivate their career choice where well educated parents and those holding well paying jobs are likely to sway their children’s choice of career in a particular way. The social economic background influences the choice of students’ career especially among careers that are expensive to undertake such as medicine and engineering. Some of the problems affecting proper implementation of career choices are peer pressure, pre-conceived ideas, confusion, unawareness of careers available in the market, unrealistic expectations, inadequate trained personnel to handle guidance and counseling sessions, negative attitude towards some careers such as farming, lack of enough exposure and inadequate time for guidance and counseling. The study recommends that schools establish guidance and counseling services and deploy trained personnel to handle students, students undertake enough research on the job market to be able to make realistic career choices, students, teachers and parents should try to discover students’ talents and interest and nurture them to fruition, schools should provide adequate career guidance resources to teachers and students such as books among others to make career choice exercise much easier. Students should be facilitated to interact with people in different sectors of the economy to familiarize themselves with different careers that are in existence and what they entail while schools should establish career choice clubs in schools to create awareness among students at an early age. NOEL SARAH NYONGESA Download
85A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMNT PRACTISES ON THE PERFOMANCE OF FIRMS IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY: A CASE OF KENYA COMMERCIAL BANK AND NATIONAL BANK OF KENYATHE EFFECT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMNT PRACTISES ON THE PERFOMANCE OF FIRMS IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY.The overall goal of any business entity is to have the needs of customers satisfied. They do this by offering quality products or services. Total Quality Management is the most currently used means of management that aim at enhancing financial performance of organizations by meeting its customer needs and quality of the products. The study mainly sought to find out the major influence that; concept of total quality has on the management of Kenya Commercial Bank and National Bank of Kenya. The objectives of the study were to establish effect of employee involvement, Continuous improvement technique, Customer satisfaction and Quality Management Techniques on performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study was based on Knowledge based theory from various TQM guru’s such as Deming’s theory of Total quality management and systems, Juran’s quality trilogy theory, Ishikawa’s seven guideline theory and Feigenbaum’s theory. The study used descriptive research design and a population of 118 respondents drawn from the banks employees. A sample of 118 questioners was taken generating 59 respondents from each Bank. Both structured and unstructured questionnaires with closed and open-ended questions were used intensively to gather relevant data that was used in this study. Different questions were used to give the respondents a wide variety and give room for respondents to answer the objectives in question as exhaustively as it is established. Quantitative data collected was analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics using SPSS (Version 21) and presented through percentages, means, standard deviations and frequencies. The analyzed data was presented in graphs, frequencies, charts and tables for interpretation and to enable draw conclusions and recommendations thereof. The findings of this study will be useful to commercial banks since it will provide insights on the importance of practicing quality management practices in the banking industry to achieve performance of firms. In theory, this study will be resourceful in providing more information on the various quality management practices adopted by firms. The study will also serve as a point of reference to academicians interested in this area and other related topics.ANGELA WANGECHI WANJAU Download
86EFFECT OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS ON PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISES (STUDY OF KAREN)ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS The main objective and purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the effect of accounting information systems on the performance of small and medium size enterprises. For this research project to be successful in finding the most suitable results the following variables or objectives were used in carrying out the research. These objectives were used as a guide and gave direction to this study. These variables were accounting information systems which acted as the dependent variable while the independent variables were performance, efficiency, cost reduction and competitive advantage in small and medium size enterprises. A population from different small and medium size enterprises in Karen, Nairobi county were selected and used in carrying out this research where the respondents of this study were selected. These comprised of the managers, assistant managers, and the employees involved in accounting systems and information technology systems in these small and medium size enterprises. Data was collected mainly using questionnaires which were self-administered to the respondents who participated in this study, observation was also used and interviews in the data collection process. The data was then analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods and it was presented using tables, pie charts, graphs and data management software such as MS excel. This research study is concluded by offering recommendations that this study established after considering the current situation in the business environment. The data for this research study was collected from respondents who were selected from selected small and medium enterprises in Karen which this study used as a study to illustrate how accounting information systems affect performance of small business. From this population the researcher was able to come up with an effective sample that was used as the respondents of this research study. These were able to provide the data and information that the researcher was looking for, to be able to meet the objectives of this study as well as the research questions which this study was seeking to answer. After analyzing all the data and information provided by the respondents of this study was able to establish that, performance improvement in many organizations has been facilitated by the flow of information in and out of the organization. When it comes to accounting systems, these systems are technologically advanced and have been able to improve on the growth and development of these institutions. This has promoted proper information keeping and flow and this has enhanced and improved the operations of the organization and enabled many organizations to realize their potential, meet their goals and objectives and basically enhance their performance. The research concluded with the researcher leaving a room for other researchers and scholars to carry further research on this topic and other closely related topics of study concerning information accounting systems.   KIPNGETICH CHEBET NELLY Download
87EFFECT OF BANK FINANCING ON PERFORMANCE OF LISTED COMPANIES IN NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF MANUFACTURING AND ALLIED SECTORBANK FINANCING Corporate finance literature suggests that the bank financing plays a critical role in determining the performance of a firm. This study investigated the relationship between bank financing and firm’s performance of 5 selected companies listed within the Nairobi Securities exchange (NSE) 2011-2015. In this study, the bank financing is considered in terms amount of loan, interest on loan, duration period and collateral security. The relationship between bank financing and firm’s performance is one that has received considerable attention in the finance literature. This is because it represents one of the most controversial issues in the field of finance. It’s in this respect the researcher carried the study in the Kenyan Nairobi Securities Exchange market. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between amount of loan on performance of listed companies in Nairobi securities exchange in Kenya: a case study of manufacturing and allied sector, to evaluate whether interest on loans affect performance of listed companies in Nairobi securities exchange in Kenya: a case study of manufacturing and allied sector, to establishes the effect of duration period on performance listed companies in Nairobi securities exchange in Kenya: a case study of manufacturing and allied sector, to assess the nature of collateral loans on performance of listed companies in Nairobi securities exchange in Kenya: a case study of manufacturing and allied sector. The study used financial ratios such as, Return on Equity (ROE), Return on Assets (ROA), as measures of firm performance. The study also used amount of loan, interest on loan, duration period and collateral security to analyze the relationship between bank financing and firm’s performance. Secondary data from Nairobi Securities Exchange hand book was collected for the period of 5years (2011-2015). It comprised of Audited financial statements, daily share prices including open and closing prices were obtained basically from the NSE for 5 years, and outstanding shares, profits, total assets, daily market prices, equity. Data obtained was analyzed into useful information using a statistical package for Social science (SPSS). Multiple regression analysis was used since it is the best suited for providing a means of establishing quantitative association between variables. The result of the research explains a significantly positive relationship between amount of loan and ROE and ROA as measures of firm performance, while interest on loan and interest on loan, duration period and collateral security has a negative correlation with Return on Equity (ROE) and Return on Asset (ROA). This study focuses on the firms listed in the NSE Main Investment Market Segment. During the course of this study several ideas and potential research areas have crossed my mind. The purpose of this section is to serve as a source of inspiration for further researchers who want to write research papers within this area of work. As firms age management should be very keen on the capital structure and also embrace technology which can improve firms performance, Gleason, Mathur, and Mathur (2000), found that Firm size has a positive and significant impact on firm performance ROA, The economic environment, organizational policy and risk will affect firms’ performance. INNOCENT J KESSY Download
88EFFECT OF BOOKKEEPING ON FINANCIAL STABILITY OF CATHOLIC INSTITUTIONS: A CASE OF COTTOLENGO INSTITUTIONS IN EAST AFRICABOOKKEEPING AND FINANCIAL STABILITY The study was carried out to investigate effect of bookkeeping on financial stability of Catholic Institutions: a case of Cottolengo Institutions in East Africa. The research objectives were to determine the effect of cashbook, journal entries, ledger accounts and to evaluate the effect of vouchers on financial stability of Cottolengo Institutions in East Africa. The instrument used to gather information was a questionnaire. A total of 30 Cottolengo members who are involved in money recording and keeping were taken for the study’s target population. The census method was used since the target population was small. Structured questionnaires were used as a tool for collecting data and were distributed to the respondents with the approval of the relevant authorities. All questionnaires were administered personally by the researcher and the respondents were given two weeks to fill them. The data was analyzed using statistical descriptive methods, SPSS was used to analyze the data inform of frequencies, percentages, tables and graphs. The study concluded that recording and maintaining of records is very essential in any organization for it helps in report preparations and for future reference. The study recommended that the institution should arrange for the seminars, workshops and other kinds of trainings which will give knowledge on bookkeeping and also on report preparation.MARETE LUISA MAKENA Download
89EFFECT OF CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT ON THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF KENYA COMMERCIAL BANKCREDIT RISK MANAGEMENTGenerally, banks make profit in form of interest from lending credit to customers. However, the challenge of not keeping up to such agreement have left many banks at the losing end, thus customers default to pay in time, while others default completely. This affect the financial performance of the bank. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of credit risk management on the financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya: a case study of Kenya Commercial Bank. The study was guided by the following objectives: to investigate the effect of credit risk management on the financial performance of Kenya Commercial Bank; to find out the strategies used by the Kenya Commercial Bank to manage credit risk and to establish the policies used to mitigate credit risk in the Kenya Commercial Bank. The study used descriptive survey design and 7 credit risk officers participated in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 was used to get descriptive statistics. The study established that there is a relationship between credit risk and the profitability of the bank. However, in as much as the bank make profits from credit awarded to customers, high credit risk can lead to liquidity of the bank. The study found out that the bank has some strategies for mitigating credit risk such as Board of Directors approving credit risk policies, repayment ability as the major factor that determine the amount to lend to customers, growing deposit to maintain loan to deposit ratio and internal audit. However, credit quality reports are not prepared, credit risk assessment is carried out annually which is not enough, training on credit risk management are rarely conducted and the bank does no use credit referencing in awarding credit to customers. The study recommends that credit quality reports should be prepared monthly, credit risk assessment should be carried out regularly, credit referencing should be used in awarding credit to customers and credit risk officers should be taken for more training, workshops, short courses and seminars to better understand the ever-changing economy market.MUNENE DERRICK KURIA Download
90EFFECT OF EXPANSION ON PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS: A CASE OF KENYA COMMERCIAL BANKPERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKSThis study aimed to determine the effect of expansion on the performance of commercial banks: a case of Kenya Commercial Bank. The research objectives were to determine the effect of acquisition on earning per share, mergers on liquidity, strategic alliance on gearing ratio of the Kenya Commercial Bank. The instrument used to gather information was the document analysis guide. A total of 3 tables were used to get the number of mergers, acquisition, strategic alliances of Kenya Commercial Bank from the year 2010 to 2016 also the value of earning per share, mergers and strategic alliance. The data was analyzed using tables, graphs. The study concluded that there is a positive relationship between expansion strategies and performance of commercial banks. POWA IMONA SASKIA Download
91INFLUENCE OF PRACTICAL WORK ON THE MASTERY OF THE BIOLOGY SUBJECT IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS, IN DAGORETTI SUB – COUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTYpractical work on the mastery of the biology subjectThis study analyzed the influence of practical work on the mastery of Biology subject in public secondary schools in Dagoreti Sub-Country, Nairobi County. The study was based on three objectives specifically; To find out whether the attitude of the learners towards practical work contributes to the mastery of Biology Subject, to investigate how the attitude of teachers towards Biology practical work influences mastery of Biology Subject, to investigate whether practical work contributes in improving students’ interest towards Biology. This research adopted the quantitative research paradigm particularly the cross-sectional survey method in obtaining quantitative data. 87 students and 11 teachers were randomly sampled from three schools in Dagoretti Sub-county. Data was collected through administration of questionnaires to the respondents and were analyzed by means of the SPSS lay out and presented using frequency tables, bar charts and percentages. The findings of this study disclosed that practical work has a considerable influence on the mastery of the Biology subject. It showed that students and teachers generally have a positive attitude toward biology yet students fail sometimes to decipher the relationship between theory and practical. The study further disclosed that laboratories were available in schools but were not used adequately, furthermore the time allocated for practical lessons was enough yet the respondents demanded for more time and finally in as much as skills are emphasized in practical lessons, the research unveiled that teachers tended to emphasize more on basic process skills over integrate process skills. This study will offer a framework in which teachers could re-evaluate their instructional strategies during practical work for the enhancement of effective teaching and learning. To achieve this teachers need to make the students more aware of the roles theory and practical play as part of a whole in the biology syllabus, more laboratories need to be built in schools and adequate time allocated for practicalYAO ARISTIDE - GHISLAIN Download
92EFFECT OF FRAUD MANAGEMENT ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL INSURANCE FIRMS IN KENYA. A CASE OF AAR MEDICAL INSURANCE COMPANY.FRAUD MANAGEMENT ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL INSURANCE FIRMSIncidences of fraud have continued to settle comfortably in the medical insurance companies. Poor managerial strategies and polices has been the cause of medical insurance company losses of substantial amounts of money to settling fraud claims. This necessitated a case study of the AAR medical insurance company of Kenya. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fraud management on financial performance of medical insurance firms in Kenya. A case of AAR medical insurance company. The study was guided by the following objectives: To find out the effect of individual subscriber fraud on financial performance of medical insurance firms; To find out the effect of Health care provider fraud on financial performance of medical insurance firms and to suggest mitigation measures against medical frauds in medical insurance firms. The study used descriptive survey design and adopted the quantitative approach. The study enlisted 7 respondents from the fraud management department of the AAR insurance company. Questionnaires was used to collect quantitative data. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 was used to get descriptive statistics. The study established that there have been cases of individual subscribers’ fraud. However, among the group of fraud that the company experiences, is health provider fraud while non-disclosure of prior ailments is the major fraud committed by the individual subscriber. However, there is no software that can professionally detect fraudulent activities and the company does not use IT system in receiving fraudulent claims. Furthermore, the survey findings revealed that the Insurance Regulatory Authority is not doing enough to combat insurance fraud. The study recommends that computerized (IT) systems be used in handling of fraud claims. The Government of Kenya through the Insurance Regulatory Authority should do a follow up review of how medical insurance companies are managing fraud and the Insurance Fraud Investigation Unit (IFIU) should employ a proactive means of helping medical insurance company handle fraud.REBECCA THUONY ARECH Download
93FACTORS INFLUENCING THE USE OF FIELDWORK METHOD IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GEOGRAPHY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG SUB- COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTY.Fieldwork method in the teaching and learning of geographyThe study examined the factors influencing the use of fieldwork in the teaching and learning of Geography in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub- County, Kajiado County. The objectives of this study were: To investigate the extent to which fieldwork method is used in the teaching and learning of Geography in secondary Schools; to find out the perceptions of teachers and students towards fieldwork method in the Teaching and learning of Geography, and to identify the challenges that faces fieldwork method as a method used in the teaching and learning geography in Secondary Schools. To achieve these objectives, the researcher administered questionnaires to the students and teachers from three selected schools in the study area. The students were sampled randomly, while the teachers were purposively sampled. The responses were analyzed and presented in figures and tables. The findings showed that, majority of public secondary schools from the study area, have knowledge about fieldwork. In those schools, students are taken for fieldwork once a year, and topics that make part of Physical Geography are studied. The findings also presented a high appreciation and preferences of fieldwork method from the respondents. However, the lack of enough funds, top the list of challenges which hinder the effective use of fieldwork method. Therefore, the researcher recommended that, the Government should sponsor schools, with a school bus at least, to facilitate the use of fieldwork. He also recommended proper planning in by the schools administration, so as to provide adequate time for these field exercises. Furthermore, the researcher suggested areas for further study that include: Contributions of fieldwork on the academic performance of Geography Students in Public Secondary schools; and the role of school administrations in geographical fieldwork method use in Public Secondary schools.KABALISA THEOGENE Download
94EFFECTS OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES ON SERVICE DELIVERY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOREffects of Total Quality Management principles on service deliveryTotal quality management is a tool used by organizations with its core values centered on continually improving the quality of its product and services, and the quality of its processes, to meet and exceed customer expectations. The purpose of this study was to analyze Total Quality Management Principles and how it improves service delivery in the public sector. The specific objectives of this study were to examine how process improvement as a principle of TQM affects service delivery; to establish whether employee involvement as a principle of TQM affects the delivery of services, to determine how working in teams as a principle of TQM affects the delivery of services and to establish how continuous improvement as a principle of TQM affects the delivery of services in the public sector. The research study was carried out at National Hospital Insurance Fund. The study was of benefit to the management so as to improve the organization’s process of management and also the quality of service delivered. The study used the descriptive research design this is because it helped facilitate a general understanding and the interpretation of the problems. The target population was 150 respondents who were selected through random sampling. The data was collected using self administered questionnaires which were both open minded and close ended. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics using SPSS software and presented in pie charts and tables. The following were the key findings: Employee involvement is very essential to the organization as employees opinions help contribute to the sharing of ideas that help improve processes and service delivery. Secondly it is process improvement that lists all possible causes to a problem and some of its effects and coming up with new and useful ideas to sort out the particular problem that helps improve the processes to enable improved service delivery. Thirdly it is continuous improvement that seeks to note what is needed by the organization and what is not needed by the organization to ensure continuous improvement of functions that ensures overall customer satisfaction through improved service delivery. Fourthly it is the presence of teamwork which is essential to the organization and ensures creative ideas are shared and effectively used which helps foster flexibility and responsiveness especially to respond to change which genuinely pleases customers who enjoy improved service delivery. The study further recommends extensive research involving other companies of a different nature for extensive and further research.GATHII KEVIN KARICHO Download
95EFFECTS OF CLASS REPETITION ON PUPILS PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KAJIADO WEST SUB-COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTY, KENYA.EFFECTS OF REPETITION ON PUPILS PERFORMANCE The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of class repetition by pupils in public primary schools in Kajiado West sub-county, Kajiado County, Kenya. The study objectives were; to investigate effect of class repetition on academic achievement, investigate effect of class repetition on schooling; establish effect of class repetition on school operations and the possible ways in which class repetition can be reduced. Cross-sectional survey research design was used. The target population of the study were all public primary schools pupils in Kajiado West County which are estimated to be about 50400 pupils. Simple random sampling technique was used to select public primary schools that will form the sample. The data collection instruments used in this study was two separate questionnaires for pupils and head teachers. The first objective was to investigate effect of class repetition on academic achievement. The findings of the study indicated that class repetition do not necessarily lead to academic achievement. The second objective was to investigate effect of class repetition on schooling. The study shows that there is a negative association class repetition and schooling. The third objective was to establish effect of class repetition on school operations. The study shows that class repetition affects school operations negatively. Therefore there is a negative association between class repetition and school operations. The forth objective was to investigate the effect of class repetition and its possible solutions. The response shows that both teachers and pupils almost had the same suggestions on how to reduce class repetition which is easy and convenient to practise. Based on the findings the study concluded that class repetition do not necessarily lead to academic achievement. The study concluded that there is a negative association between class repetition and schooling, negative relationship between class repetition and school operations. Finally, the study concluded class repetition can be reduced hence the result is positive. The study recommended that pupils to be consulted whether they are willing to repeat class voluntarily instead of forcing them to repeat. Pupils should be provided with quality education so that they can perform well at the first appearance instead of repeating to attain good grades. Teachers, head teachers and parents to support those pupils who have repeated through guiding and recognition of their efforts. JAJI LORNA Download
96The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of class repetition by pupils in public primary schools in Kajiado West sub-county, Kajiado County, Kenya. The study objectives were; to investigate effect of class repetition on academic achievement, investigate effect of class repetition on schooling; establish effect of class repetition on school operations and the possible ways in which class repetition can be reduced. Cross-sectional survey research design was used. The target population of the study were all public primary schools pupils in Kajiado West County which are estimated to be about 50400 pupils. Simple random sampling technique was used to select public primary schools that will form the sample. The data collection instruments used in this study was two separate questionnaires for pupils and head teachers. The first objective was to investigate effect of class repetition on academic achievement. The findings of the study indicated that class repetition do not necessarily lead to academic achievement. The second objective was to investigate effect of class repetition on schooling. The study shows that there is a negative association class repetition and schooling. The third objective was to establish effect of class repetition on school operations. The study shows that class repetition affects school operations negatively. Therefore there is a negative association between class repetition and school operations. The forth objective was to investigate the effect of class repetition and its possible solutions. The response shows that both teachers and pupils almost had the same suggestions on how to reduce class repetition which is easy and convenient to practise. Based on the findings the study concluded that class repetition do not necessarily lead to academic achievement. The study concluded that there is a negative association between class repetition and schooling, negative relationship between class repetition and school operations. Finally, the study concluded class repetition can be reduced hence the result is positive. The study recommended that pupils to be consulted whether they are willing to repeat class voluntarily instead of forcing them to repeat. Pupils should be provided with quality education so that they can perform well at the first appearance instead of repeating to attain good grades. Teachers, head teachers and parents to support those pupils who have repeated through guiding and recognition of their efforts.EFFECTS OF FRENCH LANGUAGE ON LEARNING The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of French language on learning of English language among French speaking students in institutions of higher learning in Lang’ata Division, Nairobi County. The study was guided by the following objectives: To evaluate how French pronunciation affects the learning of English language; To examine how French spelling affects the learning of English language; To establish how French vocabulary affects the learning of English language; To determine how French grammar affects the learning of English language and; To assess how direct translation of French phrases into English affects the learning of English language. The study used descriptive design and questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents. The data was analyzed and presented using tables, graphs and pie charts. The study established that French language has a major influence on learning of English language. French pronunciation, spelling, vocabulary, grammar and direct translation were noted to have either negative or positive influence on learning of English language. English spelling system was found to be confusing especially inconsistencies between spelling and pronunciation. It was also established that French vocabulary is useful to Francophone students learning English. French orientation causes wrong choice of tenses when writing English sentences while Francophone students are always tempted to use French grammatical rules in English. Direct translation of French phrases to English was noted to have a negative impact on written English as most Francophone students decode information first in French before translating it into English. The study recommends that parents and guardians should take their children for English classes at a tender age as a way of getting them exposed to the language early in their lives. Lecturers teaching Francophone students English should also try to learn French so as to have an understanding of how to effectively handle the language needs of these students. Lecturers should expose students to a variety of English materials; encourage them to speak in public, in group discussions and in debates. Students should inculcate a positive perception and attitude towards English language. Students should also read widely, write a lot in English and speak more with English speakers while Institutions of Higher learning should be well equipped with adequate and up to date English learning and teaching resources including language laboratories. ABDOU RAKIB Download
97AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FACTORS INFLUENCING READING CULTURE, IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS, IN DAGORRETI, SUBCOUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTYFactors influencing reading culture in pulbic secondary schoolsThe goal of this study was to explore the factors influencing reading culture, in public secondary schools, in Dagoretti, sub-county, Nairobi. The study is guided by the following aims:  To examine the perception of students towards avid (enthusiastic) reading  To establish the role of parents in encouraging reading culture  To determine the role of teachers in enhancing reading culture among secondary school students  To examine the role of availability of reading resources in promoting a reading among Secondary school students In carrying out this study, questionnaires were administered to 100 students, 10 teachers and three librarians. The data gather from the respondents were analysed and interpreted. The target population comprised of three secondary schools of form three and four. The study revealed that the role of parents and teachers encourages and enhances reading culture hence, the teachers are committed in their profession. And most especially the availability of resources used in secondary schools. The research accepts that reading is very essential in all round development of the learners, as it is made up of techniques and processes that can be used for developing the various methods that involve vocabulary development and other areas of academic training. Claiming to the above findings, the researcher recommends that the role of teachers in enhancing reading culture should be very much considered with commitment. The availability of reading resources in secondary schools and the perception or passion of students towards reading culture should be view as an important target for developing knowledge, attitude, and skills. ATAKWU ISRAEL DAVID Download
98EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN NZAMBANI SUB-COUNTY, KITUI COUNTYEFFECTS OF POVERTY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE Education is believed to have the ability to open opportunities for a brighter future. However, it continues to elude many children especially those from low income households. It is for this reason that the researcher embarked on a study to establish the effects of poverty on academic performance of primary school pupils in Nzambani Sub-County, Kitui County. The study was guided by the following objectives: To examine how economic factors, affect academic performance of primary school pupils Nzambani sub-county, Kitui County; To investigate the influence of diseases on academic performance of primary school pupils Nzambani Sub-County, Kitui County; To determine the effects of food insecurity on academic performance of primary school pupils Nzambani sub-county, Kitui County and; To find out the effect of cultural factors on academic performance of primary school pupils Nzambani sub-county, Kitui County. The literature review has shown that poverty has adverse effects on academic performance. The methodology employed by the study was quantitative method. The study enlisted a sample of 128 participants which comprised 116 pupils and 12 teachers. Pupils were selected through random sampling while teachers were selected through purposive sampling method. The study concluded that economic factors affect students’ academic performance. Students from lower income households have poor learning environment which negatively impacts on their academic performance due to due to lack of school necessities. On how diseases influence students’ academic performance, the study concluded that diseases influence students’ academic performance of students negatively. On the influence of food security on students’ academic performance of students, the study concluded that proper nutrition is essential for children’s academic performance since it results to improved cognitive development of students and that hungry children cannot concentrate in class and was absent most of the times. The study also concluded retrogressive cultural practices such as early marriages, female genital mutilation and excess home chores lead to poor academic performance among students. The study recommends that the national government should ensure that the students in primary school get a better conducive learning environment by getting medication and food to eat as well as getting rid of retrogressive cultural factors. Kathumo Susan Ndumi Download
99The role of prefects in enhancing discipline in secondary schools in KenyaPrefects role in enhancing disciplineThis study was conducted with the purpose of establishing the role of prefects in enhancing discipline in secondary schools. It was done in Ngong Division of Kajiado District. It was guided by research questions which helped in collecting information about the role prefects played in enhancing discipline among learners in secondary schools, the challenges prefects faced in executing their work and the measures taken by the school administration to overcome such challenges and thus support the work of prefects in secondary schools. The target population of this investigation was the public and private secondary schools in Ngong Division. Enoomatasia and Olooleiser secondary schools were the sample schools which is a representative of the other schools in Ngong Division. The sample population included forty (40) students who were selected randomly from Forms three and four (4). In each school, two (2) teachers were selected and among those selected was the principal and the vice or deputy principal. The findings of the data collected were presented in the form of frequencies, percentages, tables and charts. The research revealed that the role of prefects is very significant in enhancing discipline in secondary schools. The study also established that teachers and prefects are models of good behavior to learners and fellow students. This is because the teachers and prefects are often compassionate and caring to the learners and always made sure that a favorable environment of learning was created alongside order and full class control. It was also found out that there was insufficient support for prefects from the school administration and that prefects were not given enough power to discipline fellow students. Prefects were also not trained and organized for workshops and seminars on school discipline and management. The researcher came up with a conclusion that prefects played a very significant role the management of schools as far as discipline is concerned in secondary schools in Ngong Division of Kajiado District. EMMANUEL TIYDZE Download
100Effects Of Reading Culture On The Performance Of Secondary School Students In Kiswahili In Menara Zone, Kisumu CountyReading Culture On The Performance Of Secondary School Students In Kiswahili.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of reading culture on the performance of secondary school students in Kiswahili in Menara Zone, Kisumu County. This study was guided by the following four main objectives: i. To establish the attitude of students towards Kiswahili. ii. To find out whether there are adequate reading resources for Kiswahili. iii. To look for ways of improving the reading culture among students in Kiswahili. iv. To determine ways of motivating students in cultivating a reading culture for Kiswahili so as to improve their performance. Simple random sampling was done in the selection of schools and out of a total of about fifty schools in the zone, only six schools were selected for the study. Similarly, the group of students selected out of the total number that exists was a hundred and twenty, through random sampling. The study used simple random sampling and purposive sampling to select students, their teachers. Purposive sampling was done so as to give a wider picture of reading culture in small schools where resources are few, medium schools where resources are moderate and big schools where they have more resources. The sample comprised of a hundred and twenty students in Form 3 and Form 4 from the six selected schools in Menara Zone. Each school provided twenty students to be included in the study. The reason as to why the senior students (Form 3 and Form 4) were included in the study is because they have formed a consistent pattern of reading. Another category of the sample comprised of twelve Kiswahili teachers from the six schools, with each school providing two Kiswahili teachers for the study. The last category was made up of six head teachers from each of the six selected schools in Menara Zone. For all the categories, questionnaires were used as an instrument of collecting data. The findings indicated that students have a negative attitude towards Kiswahili and not much has been done to motivate them to improve their reading culture in Kiswahili so as to boost their performance. However, the researcher recommended various ways of addressing this issue, of improving the reading culture in Kiswahili among the students. Looking at the adequacy of reading materials, it is only one or two of the selected schools that are actually working extra hard on having adequate reading materials. Similarly, the researcher recommended a workable plan that can help to solve this challenge. In determining ways of motivating students in cultivating a reading culture for Kiswahili so as to improve their performance, the findings were not equally encouraging. As a result, the researcher outlined the ways forward to confront the setbacks. OPIYO SARAH ACHIENG’ Download
101FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF SOURCE OF CAPITAL IN MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZE ENTERPRISESChoice of source of capitalIn Kenya, there are about 2.2 million micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (Strategic Business Advisors [Africa] Ltd, 2007), of which 88% are non-registered. Of this non-registered group, only 23% have bank accounts, and only 10% have ever received credit from any formal source. MSME’s face many constraints, the lack of appropriate financial products and services in variably appears in surveys and analysis as one of the leading hurdles to realizing growth. Therefore this study seeks to establish factors influencing the choice of source of capital in MSME’S. The general objective of the study was to establish the factors influencing the choice of source of capital in MSME’S. The study adopted a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to describe the factors influencing choice of source of capital in MSM’S. Forty (40) of the total population of MSME’s who had consistently operated for more than five years were randomly sampled and subjected to this study. Quantitative data collected was analyzed by the use of inferential statistics and presented through percentages and frequencies. This study finds that whether SMEs can provide collateral or guarantee is a decisive factor, factors such as share ring of information between the MSME’S and the various creditors , trans action cost, cost of credit play an important role. Most of SMEs are in growth phrase, with small or medium size, relating to choice of source of entrepreneurial finance are the same for all SMEs regardless of their ability to obtain market information with regard to sources of capital. This study is faced with the problem of generalizing the research findings to all the MSME’s in Kenya, therefore other researchers may focus on the supply side factors influencing choice of source capital of by MSME’s that MSME’s have poor credit risk mitigation measures.DANIEL KANGE’THE NJOROGE Download
102THE INFLUENCE OF TEACHER MOTIVATION ON TEACHING AND LEARNING IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NYERI MUNICIPALITY, NYERI COUNTYTeacher motivationThe study examined “The Influence of Teacher Motivation on Teaching and Learning in Public Secondary Schools in Nyeri Municipality,Nyeri County”. It involved three public secondary schools and it was guided by four research objectives: to investigate whether salary as a form of teacher motivation affects the performance of students, to explore the role of high incentives as a form of motivation to teachers on students’ performance, to find out the effects of working conditions for teachers as a motivator on students’ performance in public secondary schools, to suggest other possible measures of motivating teachers. In order to attain these predetermined objectives, the study used questionnaire to collect data which were distributed to the students and teachers as well as interview schedule for the teachers. Teachers and Form Four students from three selected public secondary schools were sampled using simple random method to make the sample size of 125. Five sections made up the questionnaire used to collect data from the respondents: demographic information, salary as a motivator, role of high incentives, working conditions and other measures to be taken. Relevant questions to the research were designed into two main types, namely closed ended questions and open ended questions. The questionnaire return rate was 71.2 % of the sample size for students, 12% for the teachers and it was out of their responses that the study drew inferences from the findings. The quantitative data from the questionnaire were analyzed, presented and interpreted using IBM SPSS (version 21). The data provided through open ended questions and the interview schedule were also coded to support the quantitative information. The study revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards such as better housing and remuneration, promotion, conducive working environment, feasible workload, adequate teaching and learning resources and opportunities for advancement would positively influence teachers’ motivation hence, teachers’ and students’performances.The study recommends that the Teachers Service Commission should increase teacher’s salaries and standardize it. The school administration should provide enough teaching and learning resources through cost sharing with the parents. The Government should be fair in equally treating the employees in all sectors thus making them receive benefits that will increase physical comfort. Head teachers should be given proper job descriptions by their employer which will help them give clear directions to the teachers.KAGUAMBA MARY WANGARI Download
103THE INFLUENCE OF SPORTS ON DISCIPLINE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KAJIADO SOUTHThe influence of sports on discipline in secondary schoolsThe purpose of this study was to establish the influence of sports on discipline in secondary schools in Kajiado South. The study used descriptive design and adopted mixed research design. A sample of 40 respondents comprising students and teachers was used. The study found out that, indeed sports plays a positive role in curbing indiscipline in secondary schools. It concluded that many secondary school students have a positive attitude towards sports and therefore participates on weekly basis. However, the varieties of sports on offer in the curriculum and the time allocated to play are inadequate. Students who are actively involved in sports were found to be also disciplined as sports promotes self-discipline, enhance teamwork spirit, promote life skills and enable students to release tension, lower aggression and chances of indulging in crimes. However, sport facilities are inadequate and in bad condition to effectively serve the sporting needs of students in secondary schools. The variety of sports in the curriculum should be increased to broaden the participation of students. School administrators have also neglecting sports in favour of academics. The study recommends schools to motivate students to participate actively in sports by organizing frequent inter schools competitions and award participators. School administrators should also provide adequate facilities, trainers and allocate enough time for sports, while the government should increase funding for sports in schools and set sports standards to be followed by each secondary school in the entire country. FAITH ASWANI Download
104 Effects Of Teacher-Student Classroom Interaction On Students’ Academic Performance In Public Secondary Schools In Ngong Sub-County Kajiado County Teacher-Student Classroom Interaction Teacher-student classroom interaction is an important aspect that reinforces and regulates the teaching and learning process. This study, therefore, investigates its effects on students’ academic performance. This study aimed to establish how classroom, interactive teaching methods and conducive classroom environment influences students’ academic performance. The researcher used the survey design. The study was conducted in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County Kajiado County. The instruments used to collect data were questionnaires for both students and teachers. The study used a sample which was 30% of the whole population and which was selected randomly. The sample size of 147 respondents comprising of 141 students and 6 teachers was used. The researcher then analysed data using SPSS (version 21). The analysed quantitative data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, bar graphs and pie charts. Qualitative data was as well used so as to give the back born to the study. The interpretations and recommendations were based on the research findings and the research objectives. The findings showed that classroom interaction facilitates easy learning in students and boost student’s academic performance. Teaching methodology used in the classroom should be a means that fosters and nurtures learning through interaction and development of students’ academic performance. The conducive classroom environment is essential for any effective classroom interaction to take place. The attitude of both students and teachers play a vital role in creating a conducive classroom interaction.Moffat Phiri Download
105Effects of using Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Institutions of Higher Learning in Lang’ata Division, Nairobi, County.Effects of using Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) in the Teaching and Learning The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of using ICT facilities in the teaching and learning of mathematics in the institutions of higher learning in Lang’ata Division, Nairobi County. The study used cross sectional survey design where simple random sampling was used to sample three institutions of higher learning for the study. The sample size of the study was 85 mathematics students and 10 lecturers for the three sampled institutions. The study found that internet connection and the up-to-date ICT facilities are the challenges for both lecturers and students despite the availability of ICT facilities. It also revealed that students’ performance better mathematics and understand mathematics concepts when ICT facilities are used in the teaching and learning of mathematics. It indicated that the relationship between lecturers-students has improved. Therefore, students are prepared for their future career orientation when ICT facilities are used in the teaching and learning of mathematics. From the findings, the researcher recommended that government should provide ICT facilities from primary schools up to university level, so that mathematics students and lecturers in the institutions of higher learning are familiar with ICT operations. It also recommended that Ministry of Education, curriculum and syllabus developers should provide means and ways to integrate ICT facilities in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The institutions of higher learning leaders in Lang’ata Division must also ensure that quantity and quality ICT facilities are provided and maintained. They should also employ trained mathematics lecturers with ICT knowledge. MANIRAKIZA Paulin Download
106The Influence Of Teacher Motivation On Teaching And Learning In Public Secondary Schools In Nyeri Municipality, Nyeri CountyInfluence Of Teacher Motivation On Teaching And Learning The study examined “The Influence of Teacher Motivation on Teaching and Learning in Public Secondary Schools in Nyeri Municipality,Nyeri County”. It involved three public secondary schools and it was guided by four research objectives: to investigate whether salary as a form of teacher motivation affects the performance of students, to explore the role of high incentives as a form of motivation to teachers on students’ performance, to find out the effects of working conditions for teachers as a motivator on students’ performance in public secondary schools, to suggest other possible measures of motivating teachers. In order to attain these predetermined objectives, the study used questionnaire to collect data which were distributed to the students and teachers as well as interview schedule for the teachers. Teachers and Form Four students from three selected public secondary schools were sampled using simple random method to make the sample size of 125. Five sections made up the questionnaire used to collect data from the respondents: demographic information, salary as a motivator, role of high incentives, working conditions and other measures to be taken. Relevant questions to the research were designed into two main types, namely closed ended questions and open ended questions. The questionnaire return rate was 71.2 % of the sample size for students, 12% for the teachers and it was out of their responses that the study drew inferences from the findings. The quantitative data from the questionnaire were analyzed, presented and interpreted using IBM SPSS (version 21). The data provided through open ended questions and the interview schedule were also coded to support the quantitative information. The study revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards such as better housing and remuneration, promotion, conducive working environment, feasible workload, adequate teaching and learning resources and opportunities for advancement would positively influence teachers’ motivation hence, teachers’ and students’performances.The study recommends that the Teachers Service Commission should increase teacher’s salaries and standardize it. The school administration should provide enough teaching and learning resources through cost sharing with the parents. The Government should be fair in equally treating the employees in all sectors thus making them receive benefits that will increase physical comfort. Head teachers should be given proper job descriptions by their employer which will help them give clear directions to the teachers. KAGUAMBA MARY WANGARI Download
107Analysis Of Cultural Differences On Team Work Performance In An Organisation A Case Of Marist International University CollegeAnalysis Of Cultural Differences On Team Work Performance Culture has diverse meanings, in simple terms or rather the layman’s language we may say that it is a people’s way of living. In life’s existence we do have 2 types of culture, namely; Personal culture – this entails an individual’s way of living and General culture- this is with reference to a mass of people with similar cultural backgrounds. The researcher had Individual perceptions, Language differences and Nationality as general objectives for the study. With the use of the objectives the researcher has analyzed the challenges that come about teamwork performance with the diversity in the school. The topic in question tends to provide a solution to the problem that organizations may face or rather may be encountering as a result of diversity in the culture of the employees and students .Most organizations, well point of correction, all organizations have different departments assigned to different tasks for efficient operation of the organization, this departments may also be termed as teams. It is not likely that all personnel working under one department have similar cultural background hence the study helps us find ways to get all these people with different cultures but from one department have positive conflicts as well as positive outputs. EKRAH SHIYAYO SHINALI Download
108Elements Of Extensive Reading And L1 In Students’ English Essays:A Case Study Of Students In Ngong, Kajiado County.Extensive Reading And L1 This study analyses the elements of extensive reading and effects of L1 in students’ English essay. The research focuses on English language teachers and from three and four students randomly sampled. The research findings indicated that extensive reading culture affects students’ ability to express themselves in essay writing in English language. It also shows that L1 is mainly manifested in students’ English essay as direct translation. Using Coder’s (1967) Error Analysis Theory, the study shows that students’ errors in English essays mainly includes: tenses, constructions and subject-verb agreement. The students’ problems in essay writing are mainly attributed to students’ related factors like lack of understanding of English concepts, limited vocabulary and lack of regular practiceMWAMBA CHOMBA VICTOR Download
109THE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF INTEGRATED ENGLISH ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ENGLISH: A Case Study of Nembu Girls High School in Nairobi CountyEffects of integrated EnglishThis project is a case study, conducted within a paradigm of action research of the performance of English in Kenyan National Examination. Its aim is to investigate the effect of the integration of English language and literature on the performance of English. The case study is placed in context through a consideration of educational change in performance of Nembu Girls High School. The case study is also contextualized at an international level through a survey of the theory and practice of an integrated approach to the teaching of English language and literature to ESOL students. A survey of the literature, mainly in the last twenty-seven years, reveals a growing interest in this approach. An attempt is then made to encapsulate this research in the form of giving the benefits of integrating English language and literature. The case study subsequently attempts to test the validity of these claims. The case study is presented as a process involving statement of the problem, literature review, the research design and methodology, findings and evaluation of its efficacy by the researcher. In line with methodology of action, questionnaires are used to gather data. The analysis of this data is both quantitative and qualitative. In keeping with the philosophy of action research and current educational practice, an attempt was made to incorporate the act upon the insights of students and teachers. The conclusion of the project is partly stated in terms of good performance: an attempt is made to assess the suitability of the integrated approach with regard to its fitness of and for purpose. It is concluded that a number of contextual factors, such as frequent use of kiswahili by students, lack of language awareness and occasionally updating of teachers teaching methodology. The iv case study is also assessed in terms of its contribution to other research in the field, and the personal development of the researcher. The findings of the study are context specific for Nembu Girls High School: consequently, no claim is made that they are generalisable to all other context or schoolsTYOKOR EMMANUEL TOR Download
110Effects of digital banking service on customers satisfaction on SaccoBanks and bankingSacco’s have been forced to deleverage and identify alternative sources of value as a result of increased regulations and competitive challenges. This has led to the introduction of digital banking where technology is mostly embraced while carrying transactions. However, customers are still waiting for this new banking experience as a revolutionary transformation that will bring many new features, including anytime and anywhere banking, ultra-fast response times, and omnipresent advisors. This study purposed to investigate the effect of digital banking service on customer satisfaction of a Sacco case of Waumini Sacco in Nairobi. Three objectives that guided the study: To ascertain the types of digital banking tools used that affect customer satisfaction,To determine the benefits of digital banking service on customers satisfaction, To establish how accessibility to digital banking affects Customer Satisfaction. The target population for the study was Marist staff members who are customers of Waumini Sacco and descriptive survey design was done and data was collected using questionnaires that were distributed to gather primary data. Analysis was undertaken with aid of Statistical package for social science (SPSS) software where both descriptive and correlation analysis were performed to determine if there was any relation between digital banking service and customer satisfaction of waumini Sacco. The data collection was analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data was used to obtain descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentages and standard deviation, while qualitative method was used to analyze the open ended question and descriptive statistics. Recommendations arising from the study are; in order to have faster processes in digital banking, there is need by banks to invest more on robust reliable systems to reduce incidents of failed transactions and transactional errors in ATMs, Mobile banking Sacco’s need to come up with an application that can be used to enhance digital banking which will be considered safe and private in order to boost the operations, availability and accessibility of digital banking.AUDRINE GIFT WAFULA Download
111Factors influencing the academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Ngong division, Kajiado countyacademic performance of boys The needs of the boy child have been relegated to the back seat for many years as more focus is directed to uplifting the girl child in all fronts. It is for this reason that a study focusing on the boy child education was necessary. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors influencing the academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Kajiado County. The study was guided by the following objectives: to find out whether peer pressure influences the academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Kajiado County; to examine the nature of the school environment in influencing academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Kajiado County; to investigate the behavioural problems in influencing the academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Kajiado County; to determine whether literacy skills influence the academic performance of boys in secondary schools in Kajiado County. The study adopted quantitative research method and enlisted 87 participants who were randomly selected. Descriptive analysis of the data was computed in terms of item analysis using frequencies and percentages. The findings were presented using tables and diagrams. The study established that peer pressure has the potential to influence the academic performance of boys either negatively or positively. The study concluded that many schools that were involved in this study offered equal opportunities to both girls and boys in equal measure although boys are likely to be suspended from school compared to girls due to their naturally mischievous behavior. This calls for involvement of boys in programs such as mentorship to empower them academically. The study recommends empowerment of the boy child in all spheres including mentorship and life skill programs in order to improve their academic performance and make them responsible citizens.AGNES MIRIAM OJUNG’A Download
112Effects Of Corporate Social Responsibility Levels On Financial Performance: A Comparison Study Of Family Bank And Equity BankCorporate Social Responsibility Levels On Financial Performance: CSR is an important element of Banks activities. However, some firms do not consider CSR as a predictor of financial performance. It is in the light of this assertion that the researcher decided to undertake this study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Levels on the Financial Performance. The study was guided by the following objectives: To determine effect of CSR economic level of responsibility on financial performance; to examine the effect of CSR legal level of responsibility on the financial performance; to establish the effect of CSR philanthropic level of responsibility on the financial performance and to examine the effect of CSR ethical level of responsibility on the financial performance. The study was grounded on the following theories: Stakeholder Theory, Slack Resource Theory and Agency Theory. A literature review was carried out from a variety of sources especially from empirical studies which established some literature gaps that needed to be filled by the current study. Two banks namely; Equity Bank and Family Bank were used for the study. Established that factors such as interest rates, government change of policy and competition negatively affects the ability of banks to participate fully in CSR activities. The study concludes that increasing CSR activities are a desirable function as it predicts increase in profits. The study recommends that governments should reduce taxes to make it easier for the banks to participate in CSR activities. EMMA MUTHONI WAMBUI Download
113 The Employee Attitudes On Health And Safety Measures In The Manufacturing Sector The Case Of Sumaria Industries LimitedEmployee Attitudes On Health And Safety Measures The attitudes of employees on health and safety and reported incidences and accidents is not only important to Sumaria Industries Limited but also organizations related to it. The study purposes to show how safety and health measures affect the attitudes of employees towards their safety in an organization. The study investigates how safety training of employees has an impact to the organization or to determine whether safety programs and policies at hand have an impact. The study covers issues on employees’ attitudes towards health and safety and the incidences or accidents reported. The study also provides a brief literature review and conceptual framework on an assessment of employee attitudes on health and safety measures in an organization. Organizations need to be concerned with employee’s health and safety and ensure that the employees work in a good environment in an effort to reduce accidents. The research design that was used is qualitative. The population was the low cadre employees of Sumaria Industries: Industrial Area. The sampling method was used to select a number of individuals from the population. The data collection tool used was questionnaires. The data was analyzed and presented using frequency tables and charts. The results were positive as the organization generally promotes health and safety measures which in-turn positively affected the employee attitudes on matters of safety and health at the workplace.EMMANUEL EVARIST SILAYO Download
114THE CHALLENGES FACING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PHYSICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG DIVISION KAJIADO COUNTYTeaching and learning of physicsPhysics is considered a difficult subject among secondary school students. This informed the researcher’s decision to carry out this study. The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing teaching and learning of physics. It was guided by the following objectives: To examine the inadequate of resources in teaching and learning physics in secondary schools; To investigate whether teachers’ capacity is a challenge in teaching and learning physics; To establish whether learners’ attitude is a challenge to teaching and learning physics and to look at what extent the pedagogical approaches affects the teaching and learning physics in secondary schools in Ngong Division of Kajiado County. The study used descriptive survey design and adopted the quantitative approach. The study enlisted 121 respondents comprising 119 students, 7 teachers and 3 head teachers drawn from Ngong Division, Kajiado County. Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 was used. The study established that most schools have some basic teaching and learning resources such as physics laboratories, atlases, apparatus, first aid box and charts; which most teachers were frequently making use of. The study recommends that students should be exposed to interactive method of learning physics self-motivations and work hard, schools should equip the physics laboratories with adequate teaching and learning resources, parents should support the schools financially and materially while the government should increase budgets for schools. JAMES ODO Download
115Ethical Practices In Inventory Management In Public Institutions In Kenya (A Case Of Kenyatta National HospitalEthical Practices In Inventory Management A growing number of public institutions are failing in their different tasks, duties and activities and this has been caused by the lack of proper ethical practices, procedures and guidelines in carrying out their operations in the environment. Inventory management in these public institutions has been facing numerous challenges due to lack of ethics in how stock or inventory operations are managed within these institutions. Unethical practices have been rampant in many public institutions. This has affected profitability, efficiency and value creation in these institutions in different ways. Despite the fact that many public institutions are usually monitored, controlled and managed by different bodies and operate under different regulations and code of ethics, there are many unethical practices which are continually taking place in these institutions. This has been facilitated by the fact that many of these institutions are failing in their management, code of ethics as well as in their control systems. This study was seeking to address this issue fully and extensively for the success of these institutions specifically when it comes to inventory management. The purpose of this study was to look deeply on the issue of ethics in inventory management in public institutions. This study was basically trying to look deeply on how profitability, efficiency and value creation are affected by ethical practices when it comes to inventory management in public institutions. Data was collected using questionnaires, one on one interview and I also used document analysis guide with the respondents of this study and it was then analyzed using descriptive statistics. After the data analysis the information was then presented using tables, graphs, pie charts and data management software’s such as MS excel tables. The data for this research study was collected from respondents who were selected from the Kenyatta National Hospital offices which this study used as its case study to illustrate how unethical practices in inventory management are evident in public institutions. From this population the researcher was able to come up with an effective sample that was used as the respondents of this research study. These were able to provide the data and information that the researcher was looking for, to be able to meet the objectives of this study as well as the research questions which this study was seeking to answer. As a conclusion the study was then be able to recommended and suggest ways in which public institutions can improve on their inventory management with regard to ethical practices. The researcher also recommended other areas where research needs to be done on this topic on ethics in inventory management in both public and private institutions. MBUGUA CAROLINE WANGUI Download
116FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTREPRISES (SMEs): CASE OF SELECTED BARBER SHOPS IN LANGATA SUB-COUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTY.Financial perormance of small and medium enterprises (SMEsThe study analyzed the factors affecting the performance of Small and Medium Enterprises focusing on select barbershops in Lang’ata constituency. The study was based on four objectives namely: To establish the effect of entrepreneurs’ individual innovativeness on the performance of barbershops, to examine the effect of Government policies and regulations on performance, to establish whether entrepreneurial characteristics affect performance and whether technological changes affect the performance of barbershops in Lang’ata. The research adopted qualitative and quantitative research methods where research design on 3 select barbershops were purposely selected from a population of 20 barbershops in Lang’ata. The data was collected through administration of questionnaires to managers and owners of the select barbershops and an interview conducted on one of the three select barbershop owners. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics with the aid of Statistical Package of Social Scientists (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel worksheets. Presentation of the data was done using pie charts, frequency tables, bar graphs and percentages. It was disclosed from the findings that individual innovations play a pivotal role in the performance of SMEs as being creative helps a business grow. It was also affirmed from the study that Government policies and regulations towards SMEs negatively impacts them and that the measures set in place are stringent to the businesses hindering growth and performance. Performance is highly influenced by entrepreneurial characteristics such as gender, age, previous work experience and the relevant skills required to manage and run the business. The study further disclosed that technological changes are vital and important in the successful running and performing of an SME. This study offers a basis in which barbershop businesses and SMEs in general evaluate their management strategies and methods of operations in order to improve performance MOSES GACHERU MACHARIA Download
117ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ ENROLMENT IN PHYSICS IN PRIVATE TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN LANG’ATA DIVISION: A CASE OF TWO PRIVATE TERTIARY INSTITUIONS Selection of physics in private tertiary institutionsThe study sought to examine the factors influencing students’ enrolment in physics in private Tertiary institutions in Lang’ata Division. The study objectives were: to find out the extent to which interest of students in physics influence enrolment, to examine the role of teaching methodology in low enrolment in physics, to examine the role of parental influence in students’ enrolment in physics, to find out the extent to which availability of teaching and learning materials influence enrolment in physics, to find out the influence of students’ prior achievement in physics in enrolment, to find out the extent to which career related choices influence enrolment in physics, to examine the role of students’ motivation in low enrolment in physics, to establish ways of improving enrolment of physics in Tertiary institutions. To ascertain the necessary data for the study, 25 respondents composed of 20 physics students and 5 physics lecturers, were sampled using purposive sampling technique. The study employed two data collection instruments, the semi-structured interview guide and focus group discussions. The semi-structured interview was designed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data from the student and lecturer respondents. The focus group discussion was used to collect qualitative data from students. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 17.0, was used to analyze the quantitative data while the qualitative data was organized according to themes and used to support the quantitative figures. The study found that students’ interest, students’ prior achievement in physics, students’ personal motivation, students’ career choices, teaching methodology and parental influences influence students’ enrolment in physics in Tertiary institutions. The study also found that low enrolment could be improved through motivating and encouraging students especially those in the secondary schools.TELEWAH MICHAEL Download
118An Investigation Of Factors Cause Girl Drops Out In Public And Private Secondary Schools. A Study Of Bukoba District In TanzaniaFactors that Cause Girls to Drop out of schoolThe purpose of the study was to investigate the factors causing girls students drop out in both public and secondary schools in Bukoba District in Tanzania. The research was guided by the objectives formulated by the researcher. The research used both quantitative and qualitative data. The target population in which the researcher generated the results included secondary school teachers and students. Ten teachers and sixty students from each school were inquired. The total sample population was one hundred and forty who gave information that was needed by the researcher. Teachers were chosen randomly. Questionnaires were used as instruments for collecting data. Data was therefore analyzed and presented in the form of frequency tables, charts and graphs. After analysis the researcher came up with the following major findings: in public and private secondary schools, girls drop out of school results from pregnancy which is caused mainly by sexual harassment, either by boys, male staff and their peers in the surrounding environment. There were other many causative problems which include parents’ financial constraints. The research contends that addressing the key problems can lead to lasting solutions in resolving this problematic issues and subsequently empowering the girl child in pursuing further studies, boosting self esteem and preparing for a good future in promoting development in the country. The research revealed that the factors causing girls drop out in school are still dominant in Tanzania especially in Bukoba District. The researcher realized that students were not aware that Government’s laws and rules protect girls from factors causing dropout in education. Some Recommendations were made regarding the solutions to improve or to reduce factors causing girl child dropout in education.FAUSTINA KOKULINGILIRA MARTIN Download
119Factors Affecting Debt Recovery In Micro-Finance Institutions (A Case Of Sidian Bank, Thika)Debt Recovery In Micro-Finance InstitutionsThis study sought to determine the factors affecting debt recovery in micro finance organizations .As Microfinance Institutions become larger and more sophisticated; they experience debt recovery barriers and should therefore be more conscious in employing debt recovery policies. MFI’s with strong debt recovery policies which include risk management, valid collateral and qualified professional employees maintain quality loan portfolios, avoid liquidity crises, and reduce the risk of loss caused by human error. These policies are crucial actors that MFI’s have to handle them effectively in order to promote business continuity. Despite the strict debt recovery guidelines and operational policies set by management to regulate the activities of the credit operations and to manage the credit risk of the institution, yet, they continue to battle with low debt recovery. The objectives of the study was to find out which risks affect debt recovery and how those risks can be managed, how the level of professional qualification and employee’s competency affected debt recovery and to what extent lack of collateral/security affected debt recovery in microfinance institutions. The purpose of the study was to find out the factors affecting Sidian bank Kenya, in debt recovery and how they can be minimized. This research used mixed research design by the use of primary , secondary data and document analysis guideline which was obtained from self-administered questionnaires, published journals of Sidian Kenya, website and books. Data collected was analyzed by the use of tables and graphs. This therefore creates areas for further research in the single factors and how each of them can be avoided by taking some precautions hence facilitating the overall growth in MFI’s. NJUNGE OLIVE NJERI Download
120Effects of teacher attrition on the performance of students in public secondary schools in Homabay District ,Homabay CountyTeacher attrition Teacher attrition is a significant problem facing schools, with a large percentage of teachers leaving the profession within their first few years. Given the need to retain high quality teachers, research is needed to identify those teachers with higher retention rates. Teachers play a significant role in students’ performance. Due to teacher attrition, the performance of students often decline in KCSE. This study sought to examine the effects of teacher attrition on the performance of students in public secondary schools in Homa-bay district, Homa-bay County. The objectives of the study were: To establish the causes of teacher attrition among the public secondary school teachers in Homa-bay district in Kenya; to establish the aspects of career path development that influences the teacher attrition in Homa-bay district; to explore how the conditions of workplace influence teacher attrition in Homa-bay district; to determine the effects of teachers’ job satisfaction on teacher attrition in Homa-bay district. A descriptive research design was used in the study. A sample population of 42 respondents was selected through simple random sampling in the three public secondary schools in Homa-bay district. Data was collected through structured questionnaires administered to the teachers and the students. The validity of the questionnaires was ascertained by reviewing the questionnaires. Data analysis involved the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in form of frequency tables, pie-charts and bar graphs. The findings indicated that teacher attrition has a lot of effect on students’ performance. The study recommended that there is need for shifts in education policy in order to reduce teacher attrition in public secondary schools in Homa-bay district and the entire nation. OKECH MOSES ONYANGO Download
121Factors Affecting Integration Of Social Media In Teaching And Learning In Private Institutions Of Higher Learning A Case Study Of Marist International University CollegeIntegration Of Social Media In Teaching And Learning The purpose of this study was to examine the factors affecting the integration of social media in private institutions of higher learning. The study addressed issues such as the level of use of social media, perception of students and learners towards social media, social media use, competency level of learners and lecturers and challenges facing integration of social media in teaching and learning. The study used descriptive design and specifically the survey method. A total of 37 students and 3 lecturers were randomly sampled to represent the target population. The study established that social media can be incorporated in teaching and learning of the English Language since it is a popular mode of communication. The study noted that most students are avid users of social media where they access information from sites such as YouTube, WhatsApp and other social networking media. Both the learners and the lecturers were also found to have a positive perception towards social media whereas social media was found to have the potential to positively impact on the academic life of the learners. Most students and lecturer were found to be competent in the use of social media as they had a working knowledge of how to use social media for academic purposes. The fear of technology, exposure to online predators and likelihood of seeking inappropriate content was found to deter students and lecturers from exhaustively using social media. The study recommends that students and lecturers should endeavor to use social media for positive academic pursuit as most of the learners waste a lot of time accessing inappropriate content that distracts them or even spoil their morals. Both students and lecturers should keep on appraising their knowledge of the new and emerging technologies to enhance their sharing ability through social media.DUNCAN KANYI WANGUI Download
122 EFFECTS OF STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION ON LEARNING ENGLISH AS SECOND LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG SUB-COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTYStudent motivation on learning English as second motivationThis study examined “the effects of students’ motivation in learning English as the second language in secondary schools in Ngong sub-county, Kajiado County.” The questionnaires to this study were: the effects of students’ motivation on learning English language in secondary schools, the ways students should be motivated to learn English as second language, motivation affects students ‘attitude toward learning English, motivation affects performance in English, the challenges faced by students ‘motivation in relationship with learning English language and the possible solutions to those challenges. To respond these questions, the researcher administered questionnaires to students and to English teachers from three selected schools in the study area. The students were sampled randomly while teachers were sampled purposively. The target population in this study was 110 students and 7 teachers which made the total of 117 population. The findings showed that there are effects of motivation in learning English as the majority of respondents affirmed. Those are being interested to learn more, performance and to be satisfied in learning. They also revealed that different ways to motivate learners are appreciated like teachers ‘self confidence, availability of adequate teaching and learning resources, availability of students’ willingness in learning and conducive school environment. Motivation affects their attitude toward English in practice by speaking, do assignments, reading on their own time. Again, there are effects of motivation in performance by knowing the importance of English, more practice, self confidence and self esteem, change negative attitude toward learning. However, the high number of learners recognized that they face various challenges in learning English like lack of understand the concept in English subject, lack of enough practice, negative attitude by influence of peer pressure who have negative attitude in learning, inadequate teaching and learning materials, lack of interest and willingness to learn. According to the teachers’ opinions, learners think seriously learning English for exams, inadequate teaching and learning materials as set books, lack of interest and willingness to learn, using mother tongues and mixing English and Kiswahili as one language at school, learners miss classes because of lack of school fees or late of payment. Therefore, the researcher recommended that the government, curriculum planners and teachers should put emphasis on relating English to actual reality in the life of people. Therefore teachers should link the course to the reality, and having many seminars of English about the changes of reality of the living and share experiences on how to motivate students. Learners should be aware of usefulness of English in learning for communication, administration and different businesses that they can be interested to learn it well. For further studies, researcher suggested these areas: effects of rewards and punishments in learning English, effects of self esteem in learning English, effects of attitude toward English, the role of parents or guardians to motivate students and the role of peers in learning English. NIRAGIRE STEPHANIE Download
123Influence of student - centred learning on academic performance in public secondry schools in Ngong sub - county, Kajiado countyStudent centred learning This study analysed the influence of student–centred learning (SCL) on academic performance in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub–County, Kajiado County. The study concentrated on four research questions from which the researcher formulated the research instruments: 108 questionnaires were distributed; 90 questionnaires for students and 18 questionnaires for teachers. The researcher sampled three public secondary schools. The questionnaires were administered to three categories of participants: Form three and Form four students and teachers of the sampled secondary schools in general. The questionnaires were derived from the following research questions: What teaching methods are in the classroom in public secondary schools? To what extent does student-centred influence academic performance in public secondary schools? What impact does group discussion have on academic performance in student-centred learning environment? What instructional are used in public secondary schools that promote student-centred leering? The study was divided into five chapters; each chapter was divided into sub-sections and topics. Chapter one focused on the general view of the research topic and explained the key concepts used in the study. This chapter highlighted the statement of the problem and the significance of the study. Chapter two reviewed related literature with regard to the research topic. Chapter three exemplified the methodology conducted by the researcher for data collection and analysis. The researcher used simple random sampling method to procure an equal chance of inclusion of the participants. Chapter four analysed the data collected with the aid of Scientific Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The data were analysed descriptively. Finally, chapter five presented the summary, recommendations and areas of suggestions for further study. The findings of this study showed that student–centred learning (SCL) has a great influence on academic performance because of the teaching methods used in student-centred learning (SCL) such as group discussion, storytelling among others positively affect students’ academic performance. The findings also disclosed that as students discuss in small groups, they learn from and one another. They are motivated because of the harmonious relationships between them and the teachers. The findings also indicated that students gain confidence, communicative competence and interpersonal skills as they interact among themselves. The recommendations of the study were: Meaningful learning is most likely to occur when students are actively engaged with a variety of learning tasks. Teachers are recommended to use different teaching methods that would engage students to learning actively such as small group discussion, field trips, role play etc. Teaching and learning environment should include active learning experiences, teacher-student and student-student interactions. Head teachers of Public Secondary Schools and even Private Schools are encouraged to establish a programme team to produce a self-evaluation document containing management and quality assurance, desired learning outcomes a learning activities, assessments and professional development of teachers. Teachers are recommended to have positive attitude towards student-centred learning (SCL) and teaching methods.HARRY DEBLEH NYANTI Download
124Analysis of socio-cultural factors affecting school completion in public secondary schools in Nyancha Division, Rorya District, TanzaniaSocio-cultural factors affecting school completion - TanzaniaThe study aimed at analyzing the Socio-cultural factors affecting school completion in public secondary schools in Nyancha Division, Rorya District-Tanzania. The study was based on the following objectives: To find out the effects of poverty on students’ school completion; to examine the role of initiation rites on students’ school completion; to assess the effects of language on students’ school completion and finally, to suggest possible measures of resolving the challenges affecting school completion in Public secondary schools in Nyancha Division. Survey design was used due to its reliability and ability to produce statistical information that could be analyzed. Questionnaires were used for both students and teachers. The study used a sample which was (31%) of the whole population and which was selected randomly. The sample size of 90 respondents comprised of 80 students and 10 teachers was used. The data collection was conducted within a period of three weeks. The researcher then organized and analyzed data using SPSS (version 21). The analyzed quantitative data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, bar graphs and pie charts. The qualitative data was used to support the quantitative data. The interpretation and recommendations were based on the research findings and the research objectives. The study found that, these public secondary schools had high school incompletion rates; in addition to that, they were middle class level Public Secondary Schools. This was attributed to the albatrosses factors including; parents poor financial status, low level of parents’ education, every family member being assigned a role to play, multi-ethnic and multilingual aspects. The study recommended that, the government should put some emphasis on supporting the public secondary schools by improving the infrastructure, provision of facilities together with adequate and qualified teaching staff. Without these interventions, learners may fail to complete their studies and in the long run fail to participate effectively in national building. The school administration, the parents and students should positively support the government to realize it goals in education. KULINDUKA PATRICK NANGALE Download
125The influence of social media on the writing skills of students in public secondary schools in Kajiado North Sub-County, Kajiado County, KenyaInfluence of social media on the writing skills of studentsEnglish language is one the commonly used language in the world today. However, the emergence of social media platforms has changed how people write. It has greatly influenced the use of Standard English in writing. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of social media on writing skills among secondary school students. The study used quantitative methods approach and adopted the survey research design. The study enlisted 36 students and 9 teachers drawn from three schools in Kajiado North Constituency. The sample was selected through stratified, simple random and purposive sampling techniques. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data. Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used to get descriptive statistics. The study established that majority of students in the secondary schools are frequent users of the social media platforms. Although social media has great potential to improve students’ use of English language, most students use non-standard language while using the platform. Social media has a negative influence on students’ writing skills mainly due to the tendency to use abbreviations and ungrammatical words which if used in academic writing would lead to poor scores. The study recommends that secondary should strive to integrate social media in teaching and learning in order to utilize the potential of such media while students should strive to use standard language while using social media. This can only be achieved through guided social media use so that teach pay more attention in guiding students on how to use social media because no matter what, students will always access and use social media.KITHIA GRACE KOLA Download
126SELECTION OF PREFECTS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS: WHAT IS THE DILEMMA?Dilemma in selection of prefects in public secondary schoolsSelection of prefects in public secondary schools always attract vested interests from principals and teachers on one side and the students on the other side of the divide. The school administration worries that if students are let free to select school prefects the end result may be compromised in favor of students. On the other hand students would like to own the process and be able to vote for prefects they deem right to lead them. Increased awareness among students about their rights has escalated the clamor for freedom to elect their own leaders. This kind of situation has been a source of conflict between the two parties resulting to a lot of jittery, sometimes destruction of school property and loss of life. It is in light of this stalemate that the researcher wanted to delve deeper into the situation and find solutions that can help calm the situation. The title of the study is ‘Selection of Prefects in Public Secondary Schools: What is the Dilemma?’ The study sought to find out how prefects are selected, the criteria used, those who are involved, challenges encountered and eventually look for possible solutions. Research Methodology: The research method used was descriptive survey design. The target population was 126. The sample population was 28 (22%) of the total population. It comprised of students from forms 3 and 4, teachers and the principals. Data was collected with the use of structured questionnaires and interview guides and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 21. Findings: Response rate was 100%. Both genders were fairly represented at 50% male and 50% female. It was established that the procedure used to select prefects does not involve students directly. It is between willing individual student and the teachers who vet the names presented. The final say on who becomes a prefect is entirely upon teachers. Majority (96%) of the respondents prefer students participating in the process of selecting prefects. Attributes required to be prefects includes leadership ability, good character, being responsible, maturity, organizational skills, being visionary and proactive. Among challenges encountered included mistrust between teachers and students, lack of leadership qualities among student nominees, students not being involved in selection of prefects and prefects being given too much unnecessary powers. Recommendations: Students, teachers and principals need to work closely together to come up with acceptable prefects. Principals and teachers should provide the necessary resources and time to students to be able to conduct free and fare elections. Prefects nominated through the student leadership body should be vetted by teachers to make sure only the best ends to the ballot box. Students should be encouraged to take up leadership roles in secondary schools as a way of preparing them for future leadership. Students should elect the prefects they want, teachers should vet and induct the selected prefects while principals should endorse and give responsibilities. Elected prefects should be educated on leadership, guidance and counseling skills to be able to handle fellow students with sensitivity. Prefects selected should not be given too much power and privileges to the detriment of other students OCTAVIANO KANDUMBU Download
127EFFECTS OF SCHOOLS’ ENGLISH LANGUAGE SPEAKING POLICY ON PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN ENGLISH AS A SUBJECT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LANGATA SUB-COUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYASCHOOLS’ ENGLISH LANGUAGE SPEAKING POLICY ON PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTSThe purpose of this study was to investigate effects of schools’ English language speaking policy on performance of students in English as a subject in secondary schools in Langata Sub-County, Nairobi County. Objectives of the study were: to find out the extent to which schools English Language speaking policy affects the performance of students in English Language in Langata Sub-County; to investigate the effects of attitude of learners towards school’s English Language speaking policy on their performance in English in Secondary Schools in Langata Sub-County; to assess the influence of first language (L1) on the learning of English as a second Language in Langata Sub-County and to determine the influence of Sheng Language on the performance of students in English Language in Langata Sub-County. The study adopted a quantitative paradigm and used cross-sectional survey design. The sample of the study consisted of 89 respondents. The study revealed that the schools’ English language speaking policy has a positive impact in that it helps students to improve their spelling, vocabulary, punctuation, pronunciation in a positive way. The study also noted that students who have a positive attitude towards English are likely to perform well in the subject while students who are attentive in English classes also perform well in examinations. The study recommends that students should inculcate a positive attitude towards English language and teachers of in general. Teachers should come up with teaching methods that are interactive to ensure that students are given an opportunity to practice the schools’ English Language speaking policies. Parents should also encourage their children to regularly communicate in English especially when not in school. RAPHAEL KENNETH TIME Download
128ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE ADOPTION OF E-LEARNING IN THE KENYAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF MARIST INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, NAIROBI.Internet in education --KenyaThe use of electronics is central to many higher education teaching and learning strategies, but academic staff often negatively receives the adoption of new technology, although enthusiastically embraced by students. It has long been questioned whether universities and colleges will meet the needs of shifting knowledge-based societies and increasingly diverse student populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes towards the adoption of e-learning in the Kenyan educational system: A case study of Marist International University College, Nairobi. The objectives of the study were as follows:  To determine the understanding of e-learning among the academic staff and students of MIUC.  To determine the adoption levels of e-learning among the academic staff and students.  To examine MIUC academic staff and students‟ attitudes toward e-learning.  To determine the relationships between attitudes and the adoption of e-learning. The study used descriptive survey design method. Simple random sampling was used to select 77 students. Five academic staff and the Deputy Principal Academic were involved in the study. Data was collected from the students using questionnaires that had both closed-ended and open-ended items, and an interview guide was used to collect information from the academic staff. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS. The findings of the study revealed that the academic staff and students of Marist International University College had positive attitudes towards e-learning. In addition to traditional education (classroom learning), they have adopted new methods of learning through the use of educational technology (e-learning). However, many academic staff and students are still yet to fully make use of the features of e-learning offered by MIUC due to lack of interest, basic infrastructure and trained personnel.OKEBARAM CHIDINMA SAMUEL Download
129ROLE OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTION IN THE GROWTH OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTREPRISES (SMEs): A CASE OF KENYA WOMEN FINANCE TRUST (KWFT).Micro finance institutionsThe need for economic growth has never been so important than today in the 21st Century. The world over and Kenya in particular has seen an increase in terms of numbers of microfinance institutions. The rise of microfinance movement has increased living standards of many people including women of KWFT a corporation that has empowered and provides a source of living for them. The research was on Role of Microfinance Institutions in the Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The objectives included: to establish whether training by KWFT contributes to SMEs growth, to understand if credit provision by KWFT to their clients enhanced the growth of SMEs and to establish whether the savings mobilization approach used by KWFT contributes the growth of SMES. The research made use of both quantitative and qualitative approaches where the collection of data was made through the use of structured questionnaires. Considering the finding, it was clear to majority of the respondents’ value training which enhances their capabilities to promote growth of SMEs which should be organized often with some level of flexibility to meet the needs of the clients. Training programmes as suggested in the findings should be held within areas that are reachable and appropriately timed, designed to have positive effects on business growth. It can be said that financial institutions such as KWFT enhance enterprise growth. It is clear (31 percent of the respondents) that there is some positive change in the number of SMEs in sales volume, market share and profitability.NKONINA KENNEDY KAPANTE Download
130FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO POOR PERFORMANCE OF GEOGRAPHY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENELERAI ZONE, NAROK SOUTH SUB- COUNTY, KENYAPOOR PERFORMANCE OF GEOGRAPHY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLSThe purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to the poor performance of Geography in public secondary schools in Enelerai zone, Narok South Sub-county, Kenya. The objectives of the study were to find out how the attitude of students towards Geography contributes to the poor performance of Geography, to ascertain how teaching methodologies employed by teachers contribute to the poor performance of Geography, to investigate how availability and adequacy of instructional resources contribute to the poor performance of Geography and to proffer possible solutions to improvement in students’ performance in Geography in secondary schools in Enelerai zone. The study adopted quantitative paradigm and specifically made use of cross-sectional survey research. The study targeted 9 public secondary schools and 3 schools were selected using cluster sampling procedure. Simple random sampling was used to select 46 Form Three students and 6 teachers. Questionnaires were used to collect data which were analyzed using SPSS version 21. The data were presented using pie-charts, bar graphs and frequency tables. The study established that performance of Geography was as a result of interplay of factors such as the common use of lecture method in teaching Geography, unavailability and inadequacy of resources and negative attitude of the female students. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education revise the Geography syllabus because it has wide content, school administrators ensure instructional resources are adequate and readily available for both the students and teachers and teaching methodology should be diverse to improve the students performance in Geography.RHEMA-THEOPHORUSA C. CHELULE Download
131INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL CULTURE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN KENYA CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION EXAMINATIONS: A CASE OF ALLIANCE HIGH SCHOOLSchool culture The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of school culture to students’ performance in K.C.S.E in Kenya, with special reference to Alliance High School in Kikuyu District. The study sought to answer the following research objectives: 1. To investigate the role of the school leadership in shaping the school culture 2. To find out the students’ perception of their school culture. 3. To determine the relationship between school culture and the student’s academic performance in Alliance High School. The study used a survey design. The target population included the Principal and the students. The sample comprised 120 students and the Principal. For the students, stratified and simple samplings were used and data collecting instruments included questionnaires and interview schedule. Only one school was targeted for the whole study. The data collected were organized and analyzed using frequencies and percentages with the aid of SPSS and MS Excel. The findings indicated that the Principal/ head teacher played an important role in students’ attitude towards education. The teachers’ and fellow students’ support and encouragements helped build a conducive school culture. The findings also indicated that students developed positive attitudes towards education due to the influence they received from the stakeholders. The study also found that parents/ guardian participation in school activities had great influence on students’ academic achievements. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education provide quality education, equip schools with necessary facilities to enhance teaching and learning. To the school administration, xiv the recommendation was that they should boost the academic morale in teachers and students alike, build warm relationships among the stakeholders, empowering both students and teachers by giving them responsibilities and also by building trust in the subordinates including parents. Furthermore, the study recommended that teachers should build a good relationship with the students to reduce gap between them, identifying students with learning difficulties and finding time and ways of helping them. It would also be important to encourage students to trust and help one another in all challenging issues, teachers to be punctual in all school activities so that they can be the models to the students and giving of positive feedback to the students. In that way, the students will be motivated. About the students, the study recommended that the students be empowered with leadership skills and experiences, they should have self discipline leading to responsible behavior and should give due respect to the teachers and the administration.REUBEN BANDA Download
132ROLE OF QUALITY ASSURANCE OFFICERS IN ENHANCING QUALITY EDUCATION IN NAIROBI COUNTY KENYAEducational accountability Despite the QASOs being given targets in terms of the numbers, they are required to assess in a given performance period they have always failed to meet the targets supervision of secondary schools is not adequately performed by school inspectors and that the factors affecting supervision are of concern. Members of directorate are expected to visit schools regularly, conduct seminars and in service courses for teachers, promote advisory services among other activities. Nairobi County has been of great concern among the stakeholders. Many questions have been raised regarding the role of QASOs in enhancing teachers’ effectiveness in order to improve academic performance in secondary schools. The main objective of the study was to find out the role of QASOs in enhancing quality education in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study specific objective were to; determine the role played by QASOs in school inspection; determine the preparedness of QASOs in enhancing quality education; establish the administrative factors that affects the level of performance of QASOs; establish the effects of staffing levels on the performance of QASOs; examine how the work environment influences the level of performance of QASOs and determine the frequency of QASOs visits to schools. The research adopted descriptive design. Simple random sampling was used to sample 26 teachers from secondary schools in Nairobi County. Systematic random sampling was used to select 26 secondary schools from 85 public schools in Nairobi. Therefore, the sample size included 26 teachers, 26 head teachers and 20 QASOs officers. Questionnaires were used as the primary data collection instruments which were self-administered to the respondents. Secondary data was obtained from journals, internet, and text books. Even with the efforts made for instance in training appointed qualified personnel and providing necessary materials in strengthening the department, it’s still wanting. vi The study concluded that QASO officers play key role teachers in curriculum implementation during schools inspection. QASO officials advises the staff concerning the relevant curriculum for the school and assisted teachers in enhancing quality .The level of preparedness of QASOs in enhancing quality education contributed greatly towards guiding QASO officials on how to advise teachers’ implementation of better education quality standards. The study recommendations were that QASO officials should visit schools regularly, conduct seminars and in service courses for teachers, promote advisory services among other activities. QASO officers should improve in assisting teachers in curriculum implementation and increase the rate of schools inspection. QASO should always advice the staff on relevant curriculum for the schools and assist teachers in enhancing quality and QASO officials should properly plan their school visits and set clear objectives.CHEPKEMOI MERCY Download
133FACTORS AFFECTING PREPARATION OF BUDGETS ON SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN KENYA: CASE OF KAREN WARDBudgeting in small and medium enterprises in Kenya In the current economic climate, SMEs are starting to pay more attention to efficient management of resources and, for this purpose, use budgets as tools for financial management at company’s level and at the level of the main types of company’s activities. So, the budget is the most important tool in conducting any activity successfully. A budget is the tool by which a company’s management translates into action the corporate strategies and quantitative mission statements. The study established the factors affecting preparation of the budgets in the Small and Medium Enterprises in Karen, Kenya. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of financial knowledge on preparation of budgets in SMEs, to determine the effects on the preparation of budgets SMEs, to analyze the effects of the spending habit on the of budgets in SMEs, to assess the effects of nature of business on the preparation of budgets in SMEs. To solve the problem of lack of proper budgeting processes among SMEs in Karen there was need to first establish factors behind the poor budgeting process. Descriptive research design was used, with Target population of 498 SMEs, and Stratified random sampling was employed in selecting the sample and the sample size of 150 SMEs which represented 30% of target population. Data was analyzed using mean, weighted mean, correlation and regression analysis which were represented in graphs, tables. The study concluded that SMEs need financial knowledge in order to prepare budgets that can be helpful in controlling their business resources, also debts in business greatly affects the preparation of budgets among SMEs. Further the study recommended that SMEs should find ways of raising business capital such as through friends, fund raising, investments, donors and financial institution, also Seminars, conference, clubs, government and academic institutions need to educate business operators and individual who are aspiring to be entrepreneurs the importance of budgeting, how to prepare budget and what to be considered when preparing budget.JANETRIX NEKESA WAFULA Download
134KUTATHMINI VIPENGELE VINAVYOCHANGIA MWELEKEO HASI MIONGONI MWA WANAFUNZI WA SHULE ZA UPILI KUHUSU LUGHA YA KISWAHILI: UTAFITI MAALUM KATIKA KAUNTI YA KISUMU TARAFA YA WINAMNegative attitude towards Swahili language in secondary schoolsKazi hii imetathmini vipengele vinavyochangia mwelekeo hasi miongoni mwa wanafunzi wa shule za upili kuhusu lugha ya Kiswahili, katika Kaunti ya Kisumu Tarafa ya Winam. Utafiti huu una sura tano. Katika sura ya kwanza, utafiti huu umeshughulikia utangulizi wa kazi unaohusu dhana na hali ya lugha ya Kiswahili. Aidha, sura hii imejikita katika malengo ya utafiti, maswali ya utafiti na umuhimu wa utafiti huu. Sura hii vilevile imejumuisha misingi ya kinadharia hasa nadharia ya utabia na nadharia ya ubeberu wa lugha ambazo zilielekeza utafiti huu. Sura ya pili ya utafiti huu imeeleza yaliyoandikwa kuhusu mada pamoja na tafiti nyinginezo. Mtafiti aliweza kufahamu aliyoyashughulikia na yale yaliyopatikana kuhusu mada ambayo yaliufaa kikamilifu utafiti huu. Sura ya tatu imefafanua mbinu za utafiti wa vifaa vilivyotumika. Mbali na kueleza jinsi data zilivyochanganuliwa, utafiti huu ulitumia hojaji ya wanafunzi na ya walimu pamoja na mbinu ya mahojiano ili kuthibitisha mwelekeo wa wanafunzi kuhusu lugha ya Kiswahili. Sura ya nne imeelezea ufasili na uwasilishi wa data pamoja na uchanganuzi wake. Katika sura hii, grafu, majedwali na michoro ya pai chati mbalimbali imetumika kuwasilisha data husika. Sura ya tano imeshughulikia muhtasari wa matokeo ya utafiti, hitimisho na mapendekezo ya utafiti zaidi. Utafiti huu umependekeza mbinu zitakazotumiwa ili kuondoa mwelekeo hasi miongoni mwa wanafunzi kuhusu lugha ya Kiswahili katika Kaunti nyinginezo. PRAXIDES IDA AWINO Download
135INFLUENCE OF PRACTICAL WORK ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHEMISTRY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG SUB-COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTYTeaching and learning of chemistry This study analyzed the influence of practical work on the teaching and learning of chemistry in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-Country, Kajiado County. The study was based on six objectives namely; to find out whether the attitude of the learners towards practical work contributes to the teaching and learning of chemistry, to investigate how the attitude of teachers towards teaching chemistry practical work influence teaching and learning of chemistry, to find out teachers’ and students’ opinions towards the aims of chemistry practical work, to investigate whether practical work contributes in improving students’ interest towards chemistry, to examine the quality of laboratory materials used in the school chemistry laboratories and to find out whether the time provided for chemistry (frequency of) practical work in schools is enough. This research adopted the quantitative research paradigm particularly the cross-sectional survey method in obtaining quantitative data. 57 students and 8 teachers were randomly sampled from three schools in Ngong. Data were collected through administration of questionnaires to the respondents and were analyzed by means of the SPSS lay out and presented using frequency tables, bar charts and percentages. The findings of this study disclosed that practical work actually has a considerable influence on the teaching and learning of chemistry. It showed that students and teachers generally have a positive attitude toward chemistry yet students fail sometimes to decipher the relationship between theory and practical. The study further disclosed that laboratories were present in schools yet were not used adequately, furthermore the time provided for practical lessons was enough yet the respondents demanded for more time and finally in as much as skills are emphasized in practical lessons, the research unveiled that teachers tended to emphasize more on basic process skills over integrate process skills. This study will offer a framework in which teachers could re-evaluate their instructional strategies during practical work for the enhancement of effective teaching and learning. To achieve this teachers need to make the students more aware of the roles theory and practical play as part of a whole in the chemistry syllabus, more laboratories need to be built in schools and adequate time allocated for practical lessons.BERINYUY HANS BURINYUY Download
136FACTORS AFFECTING SAVING BEHAVIOR AMONG STUDENTS IN HIGHER LEARNING INSTITUTIONS: CASE OF JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY NAKURU TOWN CAMPUSSAVING BEHAVIOR AMONG STUDENTS The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of saving behavior among students of higher learning institutions at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. Specifically the objectives of the study were: to determine the effect of financial literacy on saving behavior among students in higher learning institution, to find out the effect of parental socialization among students in higher learning institutions, to establish the effect of peer influence among students in higher learning institutions and to assess the effect of self control on saving behavior among students at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Nakuru town campus. The research employed descriptive research design. The study’s target population was students at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Nakuru Town Campus had a total of 2007 students under the three major departments which included Education, Business Commerce and Information Technology.The study used closed and open ended questionnaires as data collection instruments. The sample of the study consisted of 105 respondents. From the findings the study concluded that effective debts and expenditures management contribute to good saving behavior, while parental socialization on saving behavior among students the study revealed parents rarely advise students on the importance of saving which contribute to prudent savings patters. The researcher concluded that students’ saving behavior is usually influenced by their friends because majority of the students fail to control themselves from unnecessary spending. The study recommends that Parents should play an important role in facilitating their children saving behavior by engaging their children at a young age, credit institutions should develop financial products according to needs and preference of students and policy makers should come up with incentives to encourage students saving which can be to reward or promote those students who save. ROSEMARY MUNAGARIZI ALUDA Download
137ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT LEADERSHIP IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG DIVISION, KAJIADO COUNTY.FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT LEADERSHIP The Research aimed at giving the analysis of the factors affecting student leadership in public Secondary schools in Ngong Division, Kajiado County. The study was guided by some formulated research questions in relation with the research topic on factors affecting student leadership in Secondary schools, some challenges facing student leaders, teachers influence, peers influence and how the school culture can affect the execution of duties of student leaders in public secondary schools. Therefore, the Researcher employed a mixed and purposive research design to ensure that the targeted population in both schools of Kibiko and Ooolua stood the equal chance of participating in the study. Purposive sampling was employed in order to target the student leaders, teachers and school principals of the both schools. Nevertheless, the total targeted population included 70 Respondents. From 70 Respondents, 52 were students, 8 student leaders, 8 teachers and finally 2 school principals. The researcher intended to involve students of form 2 to form 4 because of their wider experience of secondary school life but more importantly the researcher assumed that at this stage, teachers start to expose students to leadership responsibilities. Certainly,68 Respondents answered and gave feedback to the questionnaire that was used to collect data. Therefore, the collected data was then analyzed, organized and arranged according to each research question and presented using frequency tables, pie charts and bar graphs. The results showed that several factors determine student leadership in secondary schools. The findings indicated that peers and teachers affect positively or negatively student leadership in secondary schools. All the teachers Respondents, students and principals agreed that teachers and peers play a vital role in shaping leadership qualities among students. The study showed that motivation, school culture and parents to affects the well being of students holding leadership roles in secondary schools. In other words, the study concluded that teachers should involve students in selection of their representatives and also motivation of student leaders is very important in secondary schools. DAKA JOSEPH Download
138FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF HISTORY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG SUB- COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTYTEACHING AND LEARNING OF HISTORY History subject is one of the most important subjects taught in schools. However, it’s teaching and learning is affected by a myriad of factors. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting teaching and learning of history in secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County. The study was guided by the following objectives: To examine the influence of teaching methodology on teaching and learning of History in Ngong Sub-County; To analyze the influence of teaching and learning resources on teaching and learning of history; Examine the influence of students’ attitude towards history on teaching and learning of History in Ngong Sub-County; To evaluate the influence of future career opportunities on teaching and learning of history in Ngong Sub County. The study adopted descriptive survey design where 96 respondents were sampled. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. The study established that students’ and teachers’ attitude towards history subject was positive. For instance, teachers like teaching and learning of history in their schools while students also like the subject, have interest in teaching and learning of history and were always were looking forward to attending the next history lessons. Most teachers were using effective teaching methods that were responsive to the needs of their students such as making good use of teaching and learning resources, regularly marking students’ assignments and had adequate knowledge content of history subject. Most schools had adequate history teachers and text books for teaching and learning of history according to the teachers. Adequate teaching and learning resources have a profound influence in teaching and learning of history while teaching and learning of history influences students’ career choices. The study concluded that teaching and learning of history influences students’ career choices. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education, Schools and Students essential roles to play to ensure effective teaching and learning of history. JULIUS KANGO BONGKISHERIE Download
139FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING OF STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN INCLUSIVE SECONDARY TABORA-REGION TANZANIATEACHING OF STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENTThe purpose of this study was to establish the factors affecting teaching of students with hearing impairment in inclusive secondary schools. The study was guided by the following objectives: To analyze the effect of the levels of training among teachers in teaching students in inclusive secondary school in Tabora region-Tanzania; To establish the effect of hearing aids in teaching impaired students in inclusive secondary school in Tabora region-Tanzania; To investigate the effect of parents attitude in teaching of students with hearing impairment in inclusive secondary school in Tabora region-Tanzania. The study adopted survey design with quantitative approach. The study enlisted 100 respondents comprising 3 Head teachers, 21 parents, 16 teachers and 60 students drawn from secondary schools in Tabora region, Tanzania. The study established that most teachers dealing with the hearing-impaired students were not adequately trained to handle them. Teaching of these students was also hampered by inadequate teaching and learning resources, lack of adequate hearing aids, discrimination and stigmatization of hearing impaired students. The study recommends that the government deploys adequate trained teachers to handle students with special needs and allocate adequate teaching and learning resource.HILALIUS J. LOMANDO Download
140FACTORS AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL POLICIES FOR BASIC EDUCATION FOR ALL IN NOMADIC AREAS: A CASE OF MOYALE SUB-COUNTY, MARSABIT COUNTY.MPLEMENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL POLICIES FOR BASIC EDUCATION This new study examined the factors affecting the implementation of educational policies in nomadic areas of Moyale sub county in the light of Kenya’s domestication of Education for All (EFA) which the government discussed and committed itself at various world conferences. The research investigated different factors that affect the implementation. It looked at the programs geared towards achieving EFA such as Free Primary Education, boarding schools, school feeding programs and bursaries. These and other features of EFA are discussed as they are meant to provide a feasible route for educating nomads. The research used a mixed methods approach to collect data using semi-structured interviews designed for nomadic parents, focus group discussions with education officials and teachers, and a questionnaire for nomadic students in secondary schools. The research instruments were designed to find out the challenges, perceptions, preferences and policies concerning nomadic education from 150 purposively selected individuals comprising interview guides to district Education officers, Districtofficer and parent; Questionnaires and focus group discussion participants’ guides. The findings from the field illustrate how those factors affect the implementations of basic EFA. Informants cited the accessibility to the nearest school, attitude of parents, tribal conflict and low income of the parents among other issues as the inhibiting factors affecting the implementation of formal education in nomadic area. If total participation is required, the main issues arising are the need to change the existing facilities, educating the communities about the need for education and strengthen legislation for compulsory education while on the other hand improving the infrastructure for nomadic people. In this way, education can be provided that respects the nomadic lifestyle. The research concluded by proposing a multifaceted approach to the education of nomads. However, mobile schools with a non-formal curriculum package may be an especially attractive option due to expected suitability in nomadic setting and their relatively low cost, given expected financial constraints. It also recommended that further research beconducted to explore nomadic friendly learning programs before the implementation of any of these recommendations.   MARY NASIBO THOMAS Download
141Factors Affecting The Performance Of Small And Medium Entreprises (Smes): Case Of Selected Barber Shops In Langata Sub-County, Nairobi CountyThe Performance Of Small And Medium Entreprises (Smes)The study analyzed the factors affecting the performance of Small and Medium Enterprises focusing on select barbershops in Lang’ata constituency. The study was based on four objectives namely: To establish the effect of entrepreneurs’ individual innovativeness on the performance of barbershops, to examine the effect of Government policies and regulations on performance, to establish whether entrepreneurial characteristics affect performance and whether technological changes affect the performance of barbershops in Lang’ata. The research adopted qualitative and quantitative research methods where research design on 3 select barbershops were purposely selected from a population of 20 barbershops in Lang’ata. The data was collected through administration of questionnaires to managers and owners of the select barbershops and an interview conducted on one of the three select barbershop owners. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics with the aid of Statistical Package of Social Scientists (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel worksheets. Presentation of the data was done using pie charts, frequency tables, bar graphs and percentages. It was disclosed from the findings that individual innovations play a pivotal role in the performance of SMEs as being creative helps a business grow. It was also affirmed from the study that Government policies and regulations towards SMEs negatively impacts them and that the measures set in place are stringent to the businesses hindering growth and performance. Performance is highly influenced by entrepreneurial characteristics such as gender, age, previous work experience and the relevant skills required to manage and run the business. The study further disclosed that technological changes are vital and important in the successful running and performing of an SME. This study offers a basis in which barbershop businesses and SMEs in general evaluate their management strategies and methods of operations in order to improve performance.MOSES GACHERU MACHARIA Download
142An Investigation Of Factors Contributing To Poor Performance In Kiswahili In Bumula Sub-County, Bungoma County.Factors Contributing To Poor Performance In Kiswahili The study was to carry out an investigation on the factors contributing to poor performance in Kiswahili in Bumula sub-county, Bungoma County. The objectives were; Establish teacher related factors on poor performance in Kiswahili. Determine how the available teaching and learning resources in teaching Kiswahili and Establish the Student related factors that influence poor performance in Kiswahili. To achieve the research objectives, the researcher employed survey design. Among the 10 secondary schools, 3 were randomly sampled; one girl’s schools, one boy’s school and I mixed school. 97 respondents were randomly drawn from a population of 323 persons in the three chosen educational secondary schools. Four categories of respondents were involved in the research; Kiswahili students, Kiswahili teachers, Heads of Kiswahili Departments and Principals. Three types of instruments were used to collect relevant data for the study from the four categories of respondents. Data were then analyzed using SPSS. It was presented using frequencies, bar graphs and charts. The study found that: Learners and teachers have a low attitude towards Kiswahili as they prefer using English. Secondly, the school languages policies allocate English four days in a week while Kiswahili only a single day. Thirdly, shortage of teaching and learning resources especially electronics contribute to poor performance. Next, teachers do not mark class assignments rather they prefer oral answers as the learners themselves do the marking and lastly schools do not provide in-servicing course s to equip the teachers with new skills thus contributing to poor performance. It was concluded that teachers, learners and shortage of teaching and learning resources contributes to poor performance. Basing on the research findings, the researcher made the following recommendations: The government should play a key role to solve the stalemate of teaching and learning resources. There is need to sensitize the parents, stakeholders and the community at large on the provision of adequate teaching and learning resources in schools. The government ought to source for funds from donors, well-wishers and Non-Governmental Organizations to ensure diversity in the provision of teaching and learning materials. This will supplement insufficient annual funds released by the government for equipping the library with Kiswahili books and electronics. The school management teams (SMTs) should supervise and ensure Kiswahili teachers attend classes on time to ensure the forty (40) minutes allocated for the lessons especially in Kiswahili, the students are well engaged. This will lead to improved performance in Kiswahili. The school administration should hire competent teachers and put elaborate structures meant to reward students who excel in Kiswahili. The school should ensure that Kiswahili teachers attend in-servicing courses to ensure that they are updated with the current issues pertaining Kiswahili and as a way of polishing their skills. JUMAH A. BERNARD Download
143Analysis Of Factors Influencing Consumer Preference In The Hospitality Industry In Nairobi Kenya, Case Of Eka HotelConsumer Preference In The Hospitality Industry This study is about factors influencing consumer preferences in the hospitality industry with a case of Eka Hotel, Nairobi. It concentrated on five objectives which were; determining the role of advertising, effect of location, effect of pricing, effect of services and effect of special offers and loyalty programs. The target population was the hotel managers and three managers out of them were sampled based on judgmental sampling, and questionnaires were directed to them. The findings of the study are that advertising has a major role in influencing consumers’ choice, similarly the location of the hotel also plays a vital role in affecting the choice of consumers. The study also found out that pricing, the availability of services/facilities and also offering special offers and loyalty programs helps in getting new clientele and also helps in customer retentionHUSSEIN HAKIMI Download
144Factors Influencing Learning Environment In Public Primary Schools In Langata Division, Nairobi CountyLearning Environment In Public Primary Schools The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing Learning Environment in public primary schools in Langat’a Division, Nairobi County. The following objectives guided the researcher: to establish an extent to which school physical facilities influence learning environment in public primary schools; to determine ways in which teacher/pupil ratio influence learning environment in public primary schools; to investigate the influence of instructional resources in the learning environment in public primary schools; to find out how teacher preparedness influence the learning environment in public primary schools.The study used cross sectional survey design where simple random sampling was used to sample three public primary schools, for the study. Simple random sampling was used to determine the participants of the study from the three schools. The researcher through the use of random numbers selected 30% of participants from the sampled schools. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires. The findings showed that majority of the public primary schools have good physical facilities. It was also noted that despite the fact that most of the schools have physical facilities, toilet tissues were not provided. Findings also revealed that teacher/pupil ratio, were within the acceptable limits. It was also noted that most of the schools had enough instructional resources despite the fact the government does not provide instructional resources to the schools. It was therefore concluded that most of the primary schools had facilities which facilitated in teaching and learning environment. However, instructional resources were not provided to the schools. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education, should take the responsibility of providing instructional resource materials to public primary schools. The school head teachers of public primary schools in Langat Division, Nairobi county must ensure that quality school learning environment is provided to pupils so as to stimulate the learning environment.NDAPISHA FRANCIS Download
145Factors Influencing Performance In Chemistry Paper Three In Secondary Schools Within Nkaimurunya Location, Kajiado County.Performance In Chemistry Paper Three In Secondary Schools The study aimed at investigating, Factors influencing performance, in chemistry paper three in secondary schools within Nkaimurunya location, Kajiado County. The locality has been facing a continued low performance in chemistry continuously for the last five years. This has made it to be an area of interest in research as what may be the genesis of the bad performance. The study was based on three main objectives; Firstly, to identify factors that contribute to poor performance in chemistry paper three in secondary schools within Nkaimurunya location, secondly to explain the procedure of conducting practical work in secondary school chemistry, thirdly to find out possible solutions to the factors affecting learners in chemistry practical in secondary school in Nkaimurunya location. The researcher used descriptive survey design. The survey design employed systematic and random sampling procedures. It involved the chemistry teachers, Head of Departments and students from form three from the selected schools The instruments used were structured questionnaires involving both open and close ended questions and interview guides The study established several ways of improving Chemistry performance in secondary schools. They included increasing the resources for student’s use such as the revision books, laboratories’ equipment and the chemistry teachers. The study recommends that students, lecturers and management of secondary schools have a critical role to play in order to improve the academic performance in Chemistry. WILLIAM KUTWA ESIKOTE Download
146Factors Influencing Students’ Attention Span Among Public Secondary Schools In Ngong Sub-County In Kajiado County, KenyaStudents’ Attention Span The purpose of this study was to look at the “Factors Influencing Students’ Attention Span among Public Secondary Schools in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County.” The study was guided by the following research objectives: to examine the trend of students’ attention span among Secondary School Students in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County: to determine how a teacher’s methodology influence attention span among Secondary School Students in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County; to investigate student’s perception of the subject influence on attention span among Secondary School Students in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County; to find out if student’s sitting location can influence attention span among Secondary School students in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County. The study was based on a quantitative research paradigm. The researcher used questionnaires to collect data from the students and teachers in three randomly selected Secondary Schools from the study area. The study used 30% of the population sample which was selected randomly. A sample of 150 students and 9 teachers were used in this research. The data collected was conducted to achieve the set objectives. The collected data was organized and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). The analyzed data was presented using tables, bar charts and pie charts. Interpretation and recommendations were based on the research findings. The research found that, majority of the students do not have problems with paying attention in class. The teachers have an important role I enhancing students’ attention span. Since most teachers are not familiar with the problem of attention span the following recommendations were made; that teachers need to undergo further in service workshops and seminars to acquire necessary skills on building up of students’ attention span. Teachers should use a variety of instructional strategies and these should be changed approximatelyKUDAKWASHE BLESSED VAMBE Download
147Factors Influencing Students’ Career Aspirations In Public Secondary Schools In Kajiado County, Ngong Sub-CountyStudents’ Career Aspirations The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing students’ career aspirations in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County. The study sought to answer the following research objectives: to investigate parental influence on students’ career aspirations, to determine how peer influence affects students’ career aspirations, to establish the extend at which gender influence career aspirations and to find out how the job market influence students’ career aspirations. The study used a descriptive design. The target population included students and teachers from three selected secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County. The sample comprised of 85 students and 14 teachers. Questionnaires were used for both students and teachers in order to obtain the information needed. The collected data was organized and analyzed using frequencies and percentages with the help of SPSS which is presented in chapter four. The findings indicated that 95.3% of parents do not want their children to become just housewife or husband, but to have good and brighter future. The study Showed that 94% of parents do encourage their children on their career choices. The study also showed that peer influence, gender and job market do influence students’ career aspirations in many other waysLAWRENCE WONIPOKUEH DOE Download
148FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ ENROLMENT IN HISTORY IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS. A CASE STUDY OF TANGAZA, MARIST AND CUEA IN THE LANGATA DIVISION OF NAIROBI COUNTYSTUDENTS’ ENROLMENT IN HISTORY IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS.The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing students’ enrolment in history in tertiary institutions. A case study of Tangaza, Marist and CUEA in the Langata division of Nairobi County in Kenya. The study was guided by the following objectives; to find out the extent to which peer influence enrolment in the subject of history, to examine the role of parents in the enrolment in the subject of history, to find out the extent to which interest of students in the subject of history influence enrolment, to find out the extent to which career choices influence enrolment in the subject of history and to establish ways of improving enrolment in the subject of history in tertiary institutions. The study used questionnaires, interview guides and focus group discussion as instruments data collection. The study used 86 sample size for students and 6 for lecturers. The researcher explored that students’ enrolment in history was influenced by career related choices, students’ interest and peer influence. However, parental influences had no impacts on students’ enrolment in history. The researcher also found that government sponsorship can be one of the way to improve students’ enrolment in the subject of history in the tertiary institutions.ASANTE JOSEPH Download
149Factors Influencing Students’ Study Habits In Public And Private Secondary Schools In Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County Students’ Study Habits Broad and deep study habit is beneficial to students and all other individuals in the community. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing students’ study habits in public and private secondary schools in Ngong sub-county, Kajiado county. Questionnaires were employed to collect data and information of this study. The study found that majority of the students have time to study on their own and most of them agreed that study habit is important and they value it. Majority of the students live in conducive home environment. There are well equipped libraries in schools both private and public schools. Students have studied for and during an examination. Parents support their children in their studies. Students did not study to receive a reward such as praise from their parents and teachers and others have studied hard to avoid being punished by their parents and teachers. Majority of students lack motivation to study apart from their academic materials. Majority of teachers agreed that forming a study habit is important in students’ life. Teachers have positive towards students’ study habits and support their students in their studies. They teach only what is examined for students to pass examination. Teachers are role models of their students towards study habits and use electronic gadgets to access educative materials to enhance study habits of their students. Students should read widely and other materials apart from their academic course but not just to limit themselves in cramming what will be examined. This will enhance their knowledge and to develop good study behaviours. An organized timetable will help students to avoid time-wasting. Students should be to be taught time management skills so that they can use their time properly. GUERADI TOUR-HALI TAKAKI Download
150Factors Influencing The Improvement Of Quality Education Among Pastorolists In Public Secondary Schools In Kajiado East Sub-County.Improvement Of Quality Education Among Pastorolists The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors influencing the improvement of quality education among pastoralist in public secondary schools in Kajiado East Sub-County. The study was guided by the following objectives; to establish how households’ economic status influences provision of education for pastoralists’ children in public secondary school in Kajiado East Sub-County; to determine the extent to which teaching/learning resources affect the performance of students in Kajiado East Sub-County; to examine the extent to which availability of qualified teachers affect the performance of the students in Kajiado East Sub-County; to establish the extent to which drought influence provision of physical needs of the students in public secondary schools in Kajiado East Sub-County. The study adopted the Structuralism theory and applied descriptive survey research design. 94.8% of the population was used as sample to participate in the study. The target population was 4 Principals, 10 Teachers, 36 Parents and 81 Students. The sample totals were 4 Principals, 8 Teachers, 36 Parents and 80 Students The research findings reveal that majority of Principals and Teachers are males indicating there is no gender balance. Further findings reveal that frequent drought and conflicts have an effect on contact time. The Pupil book ratio is mainly one to five, showing acute shortage of learning materials in schools. The study established that there was a teacher shortage because most classes have an enrolment of forty pupils and above. The study also established that drought has an influence on pupils’ physical needs due to its impoverishing effect on families. The study concluded that teachers need motivation in order for them to work in the pastoralist areas and that drought has serious effects on the physical needs of the learners. The study recommended that the government through the Ministry of Education should allocate more funds for the provision of teaching/learning resources to enable effective learning and employ enough teachers. In addition, the School Feeding Programme should be revived. The study suggests that a further research should be carried out on contribution of school feeding program to improve efficiency in education through retention. KOINATO K. KERINA Download
151Factors Influencing The Perfomance Of Comercial Banks Of Kenya Case Of Equity Perfomance Of Comercial Banks Of Kenya The increased incidence of bank failure in the recent period generated the current literature on quality of bank assets and also emphasized good governance as means of achieving banks objectives. The research study considered the factors influencing the performance of commercial banks of Kenya case of equity banks of Kenya the main objective of the study was to Debt to Equity proportion, amount of debt influence, capital employed influence performance of commercial banks at Equity bank in Kenya. The researcher used one bank which is equity bank as the target population. Target population was arrived at through use of stratified sampling technique. Secondary data was collected from equity banks. This was achieved by a comparing a data set from financial statement of equity banks. Data was analyzed using a Statistical Package For Social science (SPSS).The study used descriptive survey research design. The researcher used both regression and correlation analysis in order to manipulate numerical data collected from annual reports of banks sampled. The study findings was to determine the factors affecting the performance of private commercial banks. The response rate was representative. Descriptive and inferential statistics have been used to discuss the findings of the study. The ANOVA test was also used further to give the level of significance of the variables and showed the relationship among them through the coefficients matrix. The study concludes that debt to equity proportion influence the performance of private commercial banks in Kenya to a great extent. A high debt to equity makes the banks potentially generate more earnings than it would have without. The bank ensures that its debt to equity ratio is at acceptable levels all the time. The study further concludes that the amount of debt influences the performance of private commercial banks. The study also concludes that capital employed influence the performance of private commercial banks in Kenya to a great extent. The amount of capital employed by a bank determines its ability to finance its operations while invested resources create value for the banks. The capital employed determines the banks’ assets for its operations. The study recommends that private commercial banks should work towards ensuring the debt to equity ratio is always at the levels which enable the bank to make the maximum possible profits. Private commercial banks should create mechanisms to allow the bank offer loans but should however have measures to prevent bad debts. The shareholders of private commercial banks need to ensure that their banks are well-capitalized since it has been shown that capital influences their performance. NIYITEGEKA MARIETTE Download
152Factors Influencing The Selection Of Mathematics As An Area Of Specialization: A Case Of Marist International University College.Selection Of Mathematics As An Area Of SpecializationThe study was carried out in Marist International University College, which is a constituent college of the Catholic University of Eastern Africa. It investigated the factors influencing the selection of mathematics as an area of specialization; and was guided by the following objectives:  To determine whether the students’ interest influences the selection of mathematics.  To assess whether good performance in mathematics influences the selection of mathematics.  To identify other possible factors influencing the selection of mathematics as an area of specialization. The researcher used survey design. The target population included both mathematics students and lecturers. The respondents were sampled using simple random sampling and purposive sampling methods. Data collection instruments included questionnaires only. The sample population of 36 respondents was made up of students from different African Countries and all lecturers were from Kenya. These persons were subjected to questionnaire, which was the only instrument for data collection. The data collected were then analyzed using frequencies and percentages in the tables, pie charts and lines with the help of SPSS (17.0). The findings indicated that most of students select mathematics as an area of specialization because of interest and good performance in mathematics; other factors included the student’ parents, teachers, mathematical ability and high demand for mathematics lecturers in the Universities. In conclusion, the researcher made the following recommendations: First of all, Kenyan ministry of education should assure that mathematics teachers at the elementary level are well equipped and able to handle this subject; this will help students to develop interest in mathematics at higher level of education.Secondly, MIUC’s management board was recommended to encourage both mathematics and science students and lecturers to love these subjects as areas of specialization; for leadership tomorrow, depends on how students are educated today, especially in mathematics, sciences and technology. At last other researchers were recommended to continue investigating upon other areas left out by this research such as:  To investigate the extent to which the Kenyan’ ministry of Education is involved in promoting mathematics and sciences in the Country.  To investigate on the factors influencing female students in selecting science oriented subjects in Kenyan public Universities.  To find out the factors contributing to the high demand for mathematics and sciences lecturers in Universities in Nairobi County. BUNDU KALUMBI JEAN-CLAUDE Download
153FACTORS INFULUENCING REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT INDUSTRY IN KENYA (THE CASE OF THINDIGUA LOCATION KIAMBU COUNTY)REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT Real estate industry is recognized globally for taking a critical role in social, political and economic development. The real estate industry plays primal role in providing employment opportunities, enhancing income distribution and alleviating poverty all over the world. However, the real estate industry in Kenya continues to fail to fulfill this fundamental role due to a number of unique factors that affect investment in the sector. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors influencing investment in real estate industry in Kenya. The factors identified in the study include Government regulations, mortgage finance and marketing. This study focused on Thindigua in Kiambu County which has experienced a property boom with the demand for rental residential houses rising by the day. This study used mixed design methodology as it sought to evaluate the views of many Kenyans who are not able to afford their own homes. Primary data was also collected through field research. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. They were administered on face to face basis as well as on drop and pick basis. The researcher also interviewed the directors and staff of the real state firms operating within Thindigua in Kiambu County as well as their clients where was necessary. The study concludes that, In order to encourage more investors in the real estate industry, institutional policies such as licensing, registration requirement, product standards and certification and infrastructure policies including utility development and land policies should be streamlined and centralized to encourage more investors. ERICK MUTUMA KIMATHI Download
154Factors That Leads To Poor Performance Of Chemistry In Kakuma Refugee Secondary SchoolPoor Performance Of Chemistry The purpose of this study was to establish the factors that lead to poor performance of chemistry in Kakuma refugee camp secondary school. The study adopted a mixed research design, involving both quantitative and qualitative research. A sample of 120 respondents comprising students, teachers and Lutheran World Federation members was used. The study found out that most of the students do not perform well in Chemistry, despite the fact that students are aware of the importance of chemistry to their everyday life. The students in Kakuma secondary schools are faced by a myriad of challenges such as poverty, inadequate facilities, poor school managements and lack of qualified teachers. The study recommends the need for reforming the schools by employing adequate and qualified teachers and the need for creativity in improvising the equipments and delivery of chemistry content. The schools should also be equipped with adequate, up to date teaching and learning resources including equipping the laboratories to be able to adequately handle the required experiments. JAMES MACHAK CHANY Download
155EFFECTS OF EDUCATIONAL FIELD TRIPS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY STUDENTS IN LANGATA SUB-COUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTYEDUCATIONAL FIELD TRIPS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE The purpose of this study was to explore the Effects of Educational Field Trips on Academic Performance of Secondary School geography Students in Langata Sub-County, Nairobi County. The study was guided by the following objectives: To explore the effectiveness of fieldwork as a teaching method; to determine the perception of students and teachers towards fieldwork and to explore the factors that hinders the effective use of fieldwork. The study was informed by the empiricism theory that give preferences to learning through senses and experiences. This study adopted a quantitative research design and specifically the survey design. The sample size was made up of 69 participants who comprised of 61 students and 8 teachers who were randomly drawn from Lang’ata Sub-County, Nairobi County. The study established that fieldtrip is an effective method of teaching and learning geography in areas such as rocks, minerals, volcanoes, faulting, tourism, agriculture, rivers and fieldwork as it complements what is taught in class. The study concludes that most students enjoy going for fieldtrips. However, the study concludes that fieldtrips are expensive to conduct and time consuming. The study recommends that schools should find a ways of subsidizing the cost of fieldstrips to ensure that all students are able to participate. CHIFUNDO BENDICTO NKHOMA Download
156IMPACT OF THE BAN OF PRIVATE TUITION ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS: THE CASE OF THREE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LANG’ATA DIVISIONEffects of the ban of private tuition on teaching and learning of MathematicsABSTRACT The study sought to find out the effects of the ban of private tuition on teaching and learning of Mathematics in public secondary schools in Lang'ata Division. Three public secondary schools; Raila Educational Centre, Karen ‘C’ Secondary School and Olympic High School were randomly sampled. The study objectives were: to determine the extent to which the ban of private tuition of Mathematics is operational in secondary schools in Lang'ata Division, to find out the negative effects of the ban of private tuition on teaching and learning of Mathematics in Secondary Schools in Lang'ata Division, to ascertain the positive effects of the ban of private tuition of Mathematics on students and teachers in secondary schools in Lang'ata Division, to establish appropriate measures to mitigate the negative effects of the ban of private tuition in secondary schools. To ascertain the necessary data for the study, 142 respondents composed of 129 students, 10 Mathematics teachers and 3 Deputy Principals, were sampled using simple random sampling technique for the students and purposive technique for the teachers and Deputy Principals. The study employed two data collection instruments – questionnaire and interview guide. The questionnaires were designed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data from the student and teacher respondents. The interview guide, on the other hand, was used to collect qualitative data from the Deputy Principals. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 17.0, was used to analyze the quantitative data while the qualitative data was organized according to themes and used to support the quantitative figures. The study found that private tuition was operational in public secondary schools in Lang'ata Division even though it has been banned. The study also showed that the ban on private tuition discouraged absenteeism among students, reduced fatigue among teachers and provided students with sufficient time for personal study and research. However, the ban on private tuition brought about non-completion of Mathematics syllabus, low performance of students and has denied teachers the opportunity of earning supplementary income. The findings further showed that parents’ involvement in their children's education, effective use of time by students and teachers' motivation could help reduce the adverse effects of the ban. From the findings, the study recommended that parents and guardians should step up their supervisory roles towards their children; the Ministry of Education should also consider and put in place incentive packages for mathematics teachers; and Mathematics teachers should give students sufficient assignments to engage them.KRAMO ERIC Download
157PERCEPTION TOWARDS STUDYING HISTORY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RONGAI SUB-COUNTY IN KAJIADO COUNTY, KENYAPERCEPTION TOWARDS STUDYING HISTORY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLSThe purpose of this research was to investigate the Students’ Perception towards Studying History in Public Secondary Schools of Rongai sub-county in Kajiado County. The study was guided by the subsequent objectives: to examine the trend of Students’ enrollment in History, to investigate the extent to which career choices influence students to embark on History subject, to access the Role of Parents in the enrolment of History subject and, to explore the perception of Students towards History. The study was based on two theories: The Expectancy theory which was developed by Victor Vroom, and Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory. The study enlisted 144 respondents comprising of 132 students, 12 teachers from 3 schools that were randomly selected. Questionnaires were administered to collect quantitative and qualitative data and Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to get descriptive statistics. The study concluded that there’s an increase in the Students embarking on History and Government in the recent years which was not the case some years back, Students enroll in History due to future employment, parents don’t influence their children in the selection of the subject such as History, career choices and future employment was seen as the primordial factor that gear Students to opt-in history, history is viewed as a very simple subject. The study gave the following recommendations: there must be some forms of boosting the Students on the benefits for studying History such as an offering a wide range for employment to those doing History, the wide range on the remuneration or salaries between a specialized teacher in History and those in Science field should be shortened, parents are supposed to be the ones to build in the mind of their children the importance of learning History followed by teachers in the school and the syllabus of History taught in Secondary Schools in Kenya, should be revised.ANTÓNIO MAVEZE ARMANDO Download
158INFLUENCE OF PEER PRESURE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SUNA EAST DIVISION-MIGORI COUNTYInfluence of peer pressureThis study aimed at investigating the influence of peer pressure on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools .The general questions of the study were to find out: The extent to which a study habit affect student performance, The extent to which absenteeism from school affects student performance, The extent to which drug abuse affect performance and how selection of the subjects affect student performance. The study involved 82 respondents who were randomly sampled using probability and non-probability sampling. The study used mixed research design. The study found out that peer pressure has the ability to influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools through a number of ways such as changing opinions and ideologies through reading. Peer group in school allows the child to learn a host of skills; group interactions, conflict resolution, and trust building, among others. Negative peer influence was also found out to affect the youth as they develop for instance; peer rejection in early childhood and early adolescence was a good predictor of academic problem later. Negative peer influence has been witnessed in public secondary schools through poor performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education for many years. The study recommends that the government should put stringent rules and measures to come up with remedies to the problems of drugs in high schools and the society as a whole. Teachers need to be close to students, journey with them and give them directions especially those who are addicted to drugs and alcohol. They should sensitize them about the dangers of drugs. Schools should strive to acquire relevant and up to date textbooks and reference materials to facilitate teaching and learning so that students can develop interest in selecting subjects without being influenced by their peersJULIET ORICHE Download
159APPRAISAL OF PEACE EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MARSABIT CENTRAL DISTRICT, MARSABIT COUNTYPEACE EDUCATION The purpose of the study was to appraise Peace Education in Secondary Schools in Marsabit Central District. The objectives of the study were to examine the Rationale of Peace Education, to establish the content of Peace Education materials, to indentify ways of promoting Peace Education in Secondary Schools and to find out challenges faced by teachers in the implementation of Peace Education. The researcher used descriptive survey research design. The researcher applied both simple random sampling and stratified random sampling. The target population included the secondary school students, teachers and the Principals/Deputy Principals. An interview schedule was administered to the area education officer. The questionnaires were constructed and distributed to the candidates that form the respondents. The three selected schools include: Daka Baricha Mixed Day Secondary Schools, Marsabit Boys and Moi Girls. The study found out that Peace Education as a subject on its own is very vital. It inculcates a culture of peace in the school environment. Moreover, learners should be taught relevant concepts as far as content of Peace Education is concerned. It was also noted that there are so many ways of promoting Peace Education in a secondary school. These include ball games, creating school family with children from different backgrounds. However, various challenges were faced by the teachers in the implementation of Peace Education in the Secondary Schools. These include shortage of Peace Education materials, limited time to teach it as a subject on its own and lack of trained personnel to teach it.GALGALLO KARU SOSPETER Download
160An investigation into causes of gender variation in the performance of geography in some selected co-educational schools in Keroka division, Kisii countyCauses of gender variation in geography performance This study was to carry out an investigation on causes of Gender Variations in the Performance of Geography in Co-Educational Secondary School in Keroka Division, Kisii County. The objectives were; to identify learner-related factors that lead to gender variations in the performance of geography and to find out the extent to which school-related factors lead to gender variations in the performance of geography in Secondary Schools. To achieve the research objectives, the researcher employed survey design. Among the 8 co-educational secondary schools, 3 were randomly sampled; two public and one was private. Ninety respondents were randomly drawn from a population of 320 persons in the three chosen co-educational secondary schools. Three categories of respondents were involved in the research; geography students, students not taking geography and geography teachers. Three types of instruments were used to collect relevant data for the study from the three categories of respondents. Data were then analyzed using SPSS. It was presented using frequencies, bar graphs and charts. The study found out that: First and foremost, female students are allotted more house chores and have poor study habits. Secondly, teachers show preference to male students and so tend to ignore girls. Thirdly, geography content is complex for some girls; especially statistical methods, rocks and physical geography. Next, teachers prefer Socratic Method of teaching which provides the girls with little opportunity to express their views; and lastly, schools do not provide opportunities for field study hence, leading to girls’ loss of interest in the subject. It was therefore concluded that geography is gender sensitive. Basing on the research findings, the researcher made the following recommendations: parents should allot duties to their children in a balanced manner; Students should seek for advice from their teachers to develop ways of good study habits; the school administrators should provide the students with opportunities for field study as a source of motivation in the learning of Geography. The Ministry of Education should restructure the Geography curriculum so that the learners may develop positive attitude towards the subject. ONGAKI K. ESTHER Download
161Social And Economic Factors Influencing Solid Waste Disposal In Kware Informal Settlement.Social And Economic Factors Influencing Solid Waste Disposal The purpose of this study was to investigate the social and economic factors influencing solid waste disposal in kware, Ongata Rongai. The research was guided by the following objectives : To examine the influence of awareness levels on solid waste disposal in Kware slum, Ongata Rongai ;To determine the influence of security level on solid waste disposal in Kware Slum, Ongata Rongai ;To find out the influence of poverty on solid waste disposal in Kware slum, Ongata Rongai ;To examine the influence of enforcement of county bylaws on solid waste disposal in Kware slum,Ongata Rongai. The study adopted descriptive research design. . The study target population for this study were residents of Kware slum while the study target men and women aged between 20-60 years of age who are official residents of all villages in Kware Slum, from where a sample of 100 residents was drawn using random sampling method. The findings of the study revealed that lack of awareness, insecurity, poverty, and weak city by-laws promotes solid waste disposal among residents in Kware. The study recommends that From the findings it was noted that even though residents of Kware have basic education, they were ignorant of the importance of proper solid waste disposal. HALIMA AHMED HAWI Download
162Factors Influencing Learning Environment In Public Primary Schools In Langata Division, Nairobi CountyLearning Environment In Public Primary Schools The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing Learning Environment in public primary schools in Langat’a Division, Nairobi County. The following objectives guided the researcher: to establish an extent to which school physical facilities influence learning environment in public primary schools; to determine ways in which teacher/pupil ratio influence learning environment in public primary schools; to investigate the influence of instructional resources in the learning environment in public primary schools; to find out how teacher preparedness influence the learning environment in public primary schools.The study used cross sectional survey design where simple random sampling was used to sample three public primary schools, for the study. Simple random sampling was used to determine the participants of the study from the three schools. The researcher through the use of random numbers selected 30% of participants from the sampled schools. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires. The findings showed that majority of the public primary schools have good physical facilities. It was also noted that despite the fact that most of the schools have physical facilities, toilet tissues were not provided. Findings also revealed that teacher/pupil ratio, were within the acceptable limits. It was also noted that most of the schools had enough instructional resources despite the fact the government does not provide instructional resources to the schools. It was therefore concluded that most of the primary schools had facilities which facilitated in teaching and learning environment. However, instructional resources were not provided to the schools. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education, should take the responsibility of providing instructional resource materials to public primary schools. The school head teachers of public primary schools in Langat Division, Nairobi county must ensure that quality school learning environment is provided to pupils so as to stimulate the learning environment.NDAPISHA FRANCIS Download
163Effects Of Non-Standard English On Student Performance In English Language In Secondary Schools In Uriri Constituency, Migori CountyNon-Standard English On Student Performance The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Non-Standard English on students’ performance in English Language in secondary schools in Uriri constituency. Objectives of the study were to identify the characteristics of Non-Standard English used by Learners’ in English Language in Uriri Constituency; examine if there is an effect of Non-Standard English on learners’ performance in English Language; find out the extent to which Non-Standard English affects performance in English Language; investigate if the use of East African English contributes to Non-standard English used by learners’ in English Language and assess the influence of first language of the learning of English as a second language. The study adopted a quantitative paradigm and used cross-sectional survey design. The sample of the study consisted of 58 respondents. Questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents which were analysed and presented using frequency tables and pie charts. The study revealed that the characteristics of Non-Standard English could be noticed in errors in English Language and lack of fluency and accuracy of teachers in English. Listening, Writing, Reading and speaking skills were significantly affected by the components of East African English and the influence of First Language on the learning of English as a Second Language thus a negative effect on the performance in English language. The study recommends that all stakeholders should focus on all the macro-skills of English language for good performance. FIONA AKOTH OLUNJA Download
164FACTORS INFLUENCING BURSARY ALLOCATION TO STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG DIVISIONScholarships - KenyaThe purpose of this Study was to examine the factors influencing bursary allocation to Students in Secondary Schools in Ngong Division. The aspects of concern were investigated through six research questions. These include: To what extent does the selection of Constituency Bursary Committee (CBC) Members influence bursary allocation to Students in Secondary Schools in Ngong Division? To what extent do the selection criteria of bursary beneficiaries influence bursary allocation to Students in Secondary Schools in Ngong Division? How does the political patronage influence bursary allocation to Students in Secondary Schools in Ngong Division? How sufficient do the bursaries award are for the intended purposes? To what extent does gender consideration influence bursary allocation to Students in Secondary Schools in Ngong Division? What are the possible strategies that can be adopted to improve the allocation of bursary to Students in secondary schools in Ngong Division? The study adopted survey design. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The questionnaire was condensed categorized and mathematically analyzed and presented in frequencies, percentages and bar graphs. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS. The major findings were the influences by politicians during selections of CBC members and beneficiaries, during allocation of bursaries, deviation of CBC Members from the CBF guidelines, consideration of orphans and Students from poor households as the most needy beneficiaries, influence of tribalism and nepotism, briberies, fraud, lack of transparency and accountability, influence of inadequate funds, bursary awards help needy Students to remain and complete school, reduce dropout rate of the needy Students and reduction of fees balances of the needy Students. The Study made the following recommendations: increase of the funds, bursary responsibilities should be withdrawn from politicians, the funds should be channeled through the Schools, Schools should be involved in bursary process, and adoption of appropriate strategies of allocating the bursaries for improvement and surveillance committees of career professionals should be formed to oversee the progress of Secondary School Education Bursary Fund (SSEBF) awards.NWODO ELIAS CHUKWULOBE Download
165Effects of non-standard english on students performance in english language in secondary schools in Uriri constituency,Migori countyEffects of non-standard english on students performance in english languageThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Non-Standard English on students’ performance in English Language in secondary schools in Uriri constituency. Objectives of the study were to identify the characteristics of Non-Standard English used by Learners’ in English Language in Uriri Constituency; examine if there is an effect of Non-Standard English on learners’ performance in English Language; find out the extent to which Non-Standard English affects performance in English Language; investigate if the use of East African English contributes to Non-standard English used by learners’ in English Language and assess the influence of first language of the learning of English as a second language. The study adopted a quantitative paradigm and used cross-sectional survey design. The sample of the study consisted of 58 respondents. Questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents which were analysed and presented using frequency tables and pie charts. The study revealed that the characteristics of Non-Standard English could be noticed in errors in English Language and lack of fluency and accuracy of teachers in English. Listening, Writing, Reading and speaking skills were significantly affected by the components of East African English and the influence of First Language on the learning of English as a Second Language thus a negative effect on the performance in English language. The study recommends that all stakeholders should focus on all the macro-skills of English language for good performance.FIONA AKOTH OLUNJA Download
166The Influence Of Methods Of Teaching Business Studies On Students’ Performance In Public Secondary Schools In Ngong Sub-County, KajiadoMethods Of Teaching Business Studies The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the methods of teaching business studies on students’ performance in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado. The study was guided by the following objectives: To investigate the effects of discussion method on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado; To examine the effects of demonstration method on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado; To determine the effects of questioning method on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado; To find out effects of lecture method on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado. The study adopted survey design to help in assessing people’s attitudes, beliefs, feelings, behaviors and lives. The study sampled 150 students and 15 teachers. The study established that teaching and learning resources affects the performance of students in business studies and that the business teachers were striving to use a variety of teaching methodologies when teaching business studies which were found to resonate well with most of the students. Both teachers and students were found to have a positive attitude towards business studies and that teaching and learning resources affects students’ performance in business studies. The study recommends that the government should make business studies compulsory and equip the schools with adequate resources including qualified and adequate teachers. NDIM GILBERT NDZICHIA Download
167Teaching of speaking skills to learners with communication difficulties in secondary schools in Mbeere North district,Embu County,KenyaTeaching of Oral communicationThe purpose of this study was to investigate the teaching of speaking skills to learners with communication difficulties in Mbeere North District Embu County. Objectives of the study were to identify problems encountered by teachers in teaching pronunciation to learners with communication difficulties in Mbeere North, Embu County, Kenya; establish difficulties of teaching fluency to learners with communication difficulties in Secondary Schools in Mbeere North, Embu County, Kenya; identify the problems encountered by the teachers in teaching of grammar to students with communication difficulties in Secondary Schools in Mbeere North, Embu County, Kenya.; identify the problems encountered by the teachers in teaching of vocabulary to students with communication difficulties in Secondary Schools in Mbeere North, Embu County, Kenya and identify possible solutions to problems encountered by teachers teaching speaking skill to learners with communication difficulties. The study adopted a quantitative paradigm and used cross-sectional survey design. The sample of the study consisted of 63 participants who teachers teaching speaking skills from form one to four. Questionnaires were used to collect data from participants, which were analysed and presented using frequency tables and pie charts. The study revealed that it was evident that teachers encounter problems in teaching pronunciation, fluency, grammar and vocabulary to learners with communication difficulties as they tend to omit, add or substitute sounds or letters at the beginning, middle and at the end due disruptions of the flow and rhythm. The study recommends that all stakeholders should focus on appropriate measures to help teachers teaching speaking skills to learners with communication difficulties like teachers to have adequate skills to handle these learners.NJERU STEPHANINA KARIMI Download
168Assessment of methods used to teach drama in secondary schools in KenyaMethods used to teach drama in secondary schools in KenyaThe study assessed methods used to teach drama in secondary schools in Kenya and it used the case study of Kajiado County. It involved two schools: Oloolua and Kibiko secondary schools. It was guided by three research objectives: to identify methods used to teach drama in secondary schools, to find out whether there are challenges faced by teachers in teaching drama and to examine whether the methods used are effective in teaching drama as a performed art. In order to attain these objectives, the study used questionnaire which were distributed to students and teachers from the two selected schools. For students, two year groups (Forms three and four students) were sampled using random stratified method to make the sample size. Four sections made up the questionnaire used to collect data from the respondents: Demographic Information, existence of drama in schools, methods used to teach drama and attitudes towards drama as a genre of literature. Relevant questions to the research were designed into two main types, namely closed ended questions and open ended questions. The questionnaire return rate was (77.5%) of the expected sample size for students while for teachers the return rate was (83.3%) and it was out of their responses that the study drew inferences from the findings. The quantitative data from the questionnaire were analyzed, presented and interpreted using SPSS (version 20). The qualitative data provided through open ended questions were used to support the quantitative information. The study revealed that Literature was being taught in the schools. There were teachers for literature who were supposed to teach drama too. Two methods were identified as practical methods that can enhance the learning of drama in secondary schools: discussion and role play methods. These methods were more preferred to others because they involve students v and teachers in the teaching and learning experiences. However, inquiry and field trip methods were mentioned too. Despite the assertion that the methods mentioned above would make the teaching and learning of drama effective, it was disclosed to the researcher that the techniques used to introduce even to teach drama were not appreciated by students. Furthermore the study revealed that students were not motivated to study drama. Challenges faced during the teaching and learning of drama in classroom were stated by respondents. They included: lack of teaching material (textbooks) and scarcity of time. The fact of not involving students in performance as part of drama, as well as lack of motivation to learn the subject were found out to be among challenges that were encountered during drama sessions. Finally, the study established that despite challenges encountered during drama sessions in schools, students are disposed to learn it. It was discovered that drama was liked to be taught because as respondents argued, it is important to life both inside and outside the school premises. Thus, they would like to have means that involved them in live performance so that drama might shift to be viewed as a practical and educative discipline rather than a theoretical discipline.NDAHAYO SIXTE Download
169Home Factors Influencing Learner’s Academic Peformance In Day Secondary School In Ngong-Sub CountyHome Factors Influencing Learner’s Academic Peformance The purpose of this study was to investigate how home factors influence learner’s academic performance in day secondary schools in Ngong Sub-county. The specific objectives added were to establish the influence of parents’ level of education; Socio-economic status of parents; Parents professional qualifications and home chores on learner’s academic performance in day secondary schools in Gong Sub-county. Statistical Programme for Social Science (SPSS) version 22 was used to get descriptive statistics. The study used descriptive survey design and adopted the quantitative and qualitative approach as a research design. The study targeted three-day secondary schools with a population of 120 students and 6 teachers. The study findings indicated that educated parents assist their students in doing their school work. Parents’ socio-economic status influences the student’s academic performance. Professional parents participate better in academic performance and understand the importance of academics better. Teachers perceived that parents contribute to students’ participation in home chores. More time is spent on home chores than on school work. There should be a research on the other home base factors affecting students’ academic performance in public day secondary schools since this study only focused on four factors. N’GUETTIA KOUASSI KOSSONOU M Download
170ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING SCHOOL COMPLETION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NYANCHA DIVISION, RORYA DISTRICT, TANZANIASocio-cultural factors affecting school completion - TanzaniaThe study aimed at analyzing the Socio-cultural factors affecting school completion in public secondary schools in Nyancha Division, Rorya District-Tanzania. The study was based on the following objectives: To find out the effects of poverty on students’ school completion; to examine the role of initiation rites on students’ school completion; to assess the effects of language on students’ school completion and finally, to suggest possible measures of resolving the challenges affecting school completion in Public secondary schools in Nyancha Division. Survey design was used due to its reliability and ability to produce statistical information that could be analyzed. Questionnaires were used for both students and teachers. The study used a sample which was (31%) of the whole population and which was selected randomly. The sample size of 90 respondents comprised of 80 students and 10 teachers was used. The data collection was conducted within a period of three weeks. The researcher then organized and analyzed data using SPSS (version 21). The analyzed quantitative data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, bar graphs and pie charts. The qualitative data was used to support the quantitative data. The interpretation and recommendations were based on the research findings and the research objectives. The study found that, these public secondary schools had high school incompletion rates; in addition to that, they were middle class level Public Secondary Schools. This was attributed to the albatrosses factors including; parents poor financial status, low level of parents’ education, every family member being assigned a role to play, multi-ethnic and multilingual aspects. The study recommended that, the government should put some emphasis on supporting the public secondary schools by improving the infrastructure, provision of facilities together with adequate and qualified teaching staff. Without these interventions, learners may fail to complete their studies and in the long run fail to participate effectively in national building. The school administration, the parents and students should positively support the government to realize it goals in education.KULINDUKA PATRICK NANGALE Download
171FACTORS INFLUENCING A HEALTHY READING CULTURE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN TULIA ZONE, KITUI COUNTYFactors influencing a healthy reading culture Broad and deep reading culture is beneficial to students and all other individuals in the community. It is the policy of Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) that every secondary school in Kenya schedules a reading lesson every week for students to improve their reading habits. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing a healthy reading culture in public secondary schools in Tulia zone, Kitui County. The study used stratified sampling, simple random sampling and purposive sampling methods in identifying 102 respondents of this study. Questionnaire, interview guide and Focused Group Discussions were employed in soliciting data and information of this study. The study found that books and other reading materials are not available, accessible and affordable to most students in public secondary schools. Teachers, however, are not role models of reading since they rarely visit the libraries during their free time, weekends and during holidays. Despite that the KICD requires that schools allocate a reading lesson every week, because of overemphasis on examinations, students read only during examinations time. It was established that students do not find reading pleasurable vis-a-vis social media. This study concluded that Kenyan curriculum is limited in scope because examinations are overemphasized. The study, therefore, recommends that the Kenya National Library Services should expand and subsidize its services to the rural areas so that children from poor background could access such reading services. The parents and guardians too should balance household chores and the study time for their children. The teachers should visit the libraries and read more materials apart from course books in preparation for lessons. Teachers should also ensure leisure reading during the reading lesson which intrinsically motivates students. Students should be involved in activities like essay competitions, debates, science congress among other clubs. Timetable will help the students to avoid time wasting therefore students should be taught time management skills. ESTHER M. MUSEWA Download
172EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM IN SAFEGUARDING INVENTORIES: A CASE OF SELECTED SUPERMARKET IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYAInventory control in supermarketsThe purpose of the study is to investigate effectiveness of internal controls system in securing inventories; this will be conducted in major supermarkets in Nairobi County, Kenya. Internal control systems play a very critical role in the attainment of organizations goals and objectives. Introduction and implementation of such internal controls in all areas of an organization may only be useful if it attains the required level of effectiveness. Inventories are the biggest element of concern in most organizations since they hold lot of capital in it. This study sought to assess the extent to which the internal procurement control systems are effective; establish the effectiveness of internal stores control systems; determine the effectiveness of the internal stock distribution systems and also to assess the effectiveness of managerial internal control systems. A total of 944 employees from all the five supermarkets who are involved in the procurement, storage, distribution and management of inventory were taken for the study’s target population. The sample size of 94 employees was selected using stratified sampling method as study’s respondents. Structured questionnaires were used as tools for collecting data and were distributed to the respondents with the approval of the relevant authorities. All questionnaires were administered personally by the researcher and the respondents were given one week to fill them. Correlation and regression analysis were used to establish the relationship between the different components of the internal control systems and the effectiveness in safeguarding inventories. Data was presented using tables, charts and graphs. From the findings, internal procurement control, stores controls, stock distribution control and managerial internal control policies were effective in safeguarding inventories at the selected supermarkets. The study recommends for consideration of internal control systems as part of safeguarding and inventories. LUCY WAIRIMU MUKURURO Download
173THE EFFECTS OF MICRO-FINANCIAL INSTITUTION INDICATORS ON THE PROFITABILITY OF DEPOSIT TAKING IN MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS: A CASE OF FAULU KENYAIndicators on the profitability of deposit taking microfinance institutionsThe main objective and purpose of this study was to establish the effects of micro-financial institution indicators on the profitability of deposit taking in micro-finance institutions. The study sought to determine the effects of micro¬-financial institution indicators on the profitability of deposit taking in micro-finance institutions. Specifically, this study examined client poverty, outreach, financial sustainability, collective performance and how they affect the profitability of deposit taking micro finance institution. The research design adopted in this research was a mixed design., data was collected from faulu Kenya. The target population in this study was 3branches of faulu Kenya with 100 responders consist of staff members, assistant managers and managers. The data collected was analyzed using statistical package for social scientists (SPSS). Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationship between micro-financial institution indicators and the profitability of deposit taking micro-finance institution. For this research proposal to be successful in finding the most suitable results the following variables or objectives will be used in carrying out the research. These objectives were used as a guide and gave direction to this study. These variables were outreach, client poverty level, collecting performance and financial sustainability. IRADUKUNDA BENIMANA MARTINE Download
174MOTIVATION OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS TOWARDS A CULTURE OF READING. A CASE OF THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN AFRICAReading Interests - Universities - Kenya The purpose of this study was to investigate the motivation of university students towards a culture of reading, in the Catholic University of Eastern Africa. The study was guided by the following objectives: to determine the attitude of students towards a culture of reading, to identify the factors influencing the motivation of students towards a culture of reading, and find ways of improving the culture of reading among the university students. The study used simple random sampling and purposive sampling to select the sample among the students in the Education. The sample comprised of 80 students and one librarian. For the students, questionnaires were used as an instrument for data collection while an interview guide was used to collect information from the librarian. The findings indicated that students are motivated to read and have a positive attitude towards a culture of reading. However, the study found out that the factors that affect the motivation of students towards a culture of reading are information technology in form of social media, overloaded curriculum, and the culture of reading for exam purposes. The study recommended that parents and teachers should lay a firm foundation for their children when they are young. School administrations to ensure schools libraries are well stocked with books, the government to ensure establishment of public libraries in all counties and to subsidize the cost of books. The students should develop intrinsic motivation and positive attitude towards a culture of reading. MERCY W. MWANIKI Download
175Analysis of factors that influence students' performance in mathematics in secondary schools in Kajiado North Sub-CountyFactors influencing students' performance in mathematicsThis research project aimed at analyzing the factors that influence the students performance towards mathematic in secondary schools in Kajiado North sub-county. The study focused on four research questions, which are firstly talked about students’ attitudes towards mathematics. Secondly, spoke about socio-economic factors that affect student performance in mathematics. Thirdly is talked about the challenges that the students face in school in learning mathematics. And the last one told about the possible recommendation to improve the students’ performance in mathematics. These questions were reviewed and indicated that students’ performance in mathematics in secondary schools has been poor for many years in this sub-county. Despite the various attempts by the Ministry of Education to put in place measures such as in-servicing mathematics teachers through strengthening of mathematics project, review of the syllabus and subsidizing fees for the students; the KCSE mathematics mean score has remained consistently poor for this sub-county. Thus, this study designed to analyze the factors that influence the students’ performance towards mathematics. Research Methodology of the study was systematic and random sampling procedure was used; four secondary schools were selected among the 33 secondary schools in this district. In every school, mathematics teacher, and students were targeted for data collection. The sample of the study comprised of 62 students, 8 mathematics teachers. Pilot study of instruments was done by cronbach’s alpha on liker scale on questionnaires to check reliability. Collected data were coded using code book and analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Qualitative analysis involved making inferences from mathematics teachers and students. Data were analyzed using measure of central tendency such as mean and mode. The study used questionnaires to collect primary data from the respondents. And the data was analyzed using Statistical package for social Science (SPSS). Further, the findings were presented using tables, bar graphs, pie-charts and percentages; and it was discovered that there are factors that influence students’ performance in mathematics in secondary school in Kajiado North sub-county. Therefore, in order to improve that performance, the schools should provide the teachers who are specialist and have the all requirements in teaching mathematics including the teaching methods the guidance and counseling in studying this subject; the schools and the mathematics teachers should have direct communication to the students’ parents to follow up the students’ improvement in mathematics.Ramarolahyflavien, Modeste Download
176Effects of bookkeeping on financial stability of catholic institutions:A case of cottolengoinstitutions in East AfricaEffects of bookkeeping on financial stabilityThe study was carried out to investigate effect of bookkeeping on financial stability of Catholic Institutions: a case of Cottolengo Institutions in East Africa. The research objectives were to determine the effect of cashbook, journal entries, ledger accounts and to evaluate the effect of vouchers on financial stability of Cottolengo Institutions in East Africa. The instrument used to gather information was a questionnaire. A total of 30 Cottolengo members who are involved in money recording and keeping were taken for the study’s target population. The census method was used since the target population was small. Structured questionnaires were used as a tool for collecting data and were distributed to the respondents with the approval of the relevant authorities. All questionnaires were administered personally by the researcher and the respondents were given two weeks to fill them. The data was analyzed using statistical descriptive methods, SPSS was used to analyze the data inform of frequencies, percentages, tables and graphs. The study concluded that recording and maintaining of records is very essential in any organization for it helps in report preparations and for future reference. The study recommended that the institution should arrange for the seminars, workshops and other kinds of trainings which will give knowledge on bookkeeping and also on report preparation. MARETE LUISA MAKENA Download
177MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES IN QUALITY SERVICE DELIVERY IN TANZANIA BANKING SECTOR: A CASE OF CRDB BANK PLC.Quality service delivery in Tanzania banking sectorThe purpose of this study was to investigate the management challenges in quality service delivery in Tanzania banking sector: a case of CRDB Bank PLC. The study adopted a descriptive research design and the target population comprised 130 employees of CRDB Bank PLC working at the bank’s office in Shinyanga Town. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 65 employees as the sample size. Primary data was collected using questionnaires. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the data. The study findings showed that the quality service delivery systems adopted by the bank were effective. The management challenges that affected delivery of quality services in the bank included: organization structure, management and leadership styles, quality service delivery systems, customer demographics, organizational employee culture, training and development practices, and new technology adoption. The study recommended that the bank should first upgrade the quality delivery systems by implementing the latest and more recent quality management systems such as ISO 9000 systems. The bank management should also continue to train employees either on the job or through attending seminars.ERIC FREDDY SHOO Download
178AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG SUB-COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTY, KENYA.Teaching of sex educationSex education is important for the development of students. However, its being affected by series of factors, therefore the overall aim of this research is to make an investigation into the factors affecting the teaching of sex education in Public Secondary Secondary Schools in Kajiado Sub-county. The study was guided by the three research objectives; To know whether Culture and Religion affects the teaching of sex education in Public High schools in Kajiado County, Ngong Division, 2. To find out if the perception of teachers towards sex education affects the teaching of sex education in Public High schools in Kajiado County, Ngong Division, 3.To find out if teaching resources affects the teaching of sex education in Public High schools in Kajiado County, Ngong Division The study adopted a quantitative data analysis. The population for the study was teachers and students in Kajiado sub-county in Nairobi. The research adopted a random sampling technique on a target population of 3 schools. Sample size of 40 teachers and 147 students was drawn from the teachers and the students from forms three and four. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaires. The study generated quantitative data, which was coded and entered into Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22.0) and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study noted that sex education in public secondary schools is being faced by a myriad of challenges ranging from oppositions from different cultural and religious backgrounds, lack of adequate teaching and learning resources to the negative perceptions of teachers. The study recommends that teachers, school administration and the government have a critical role to play in order to reduce these challenges facing teaching of sex education in public secondary schools.INYANG MAGNUS OSIM Download
179Vipengele Vinavyoathiri Wanafunzi wa Shule za Upili za Umma Katika Kujieleza kwa Lugha ya Kiswahili: Gatuzi la Kajiado KaskaziniCommunication Skills - descriptiveMradi huu umeangazia vipengele vinavyoathiri wanafunzi wa shule za upili za umma katika kujieleza kwa lugha ya Kiswahili katika Gatuzi la Kajiado Kask azini. Utafiti huu umehusisha sura tano. Katika sura ya kwanza utafiti huu umeshughulikia utangulizi wa kazi unaohusu dhana ya lugha kwa ujumla vilevile kujieleza kwa lugha ya Kiswahili. Aidha, sura hii imefafanua malengo ya utafiti, maswali ya utafiti huku ikieleza umuhimu wa utafiti huu. Sura hii pia imehusisha misingi ya kinadharia kwa kuhusisha nadharia ya utabia na ya mawasiliano. Nadharia ya mawasiliano inaimarisha uwezo wa kuwasiliana miongoni mwa watu.Nadharia ya utabia kwa upande wake inaeleza jinsi tabia inavyoweza kujengwa mathalan tabia ya kujieleza kwa ufasaha. Sura a pili imeshughulikia masuala yaliyoandikwa kuhusu vipengele vinavyoathiri wanafunzi wa shule za upili za umma wakijieleza kwa lugha ya Kiswahili. Masuala haya yalimfaa mtafiti hasa kwa kuangazia baadhi ya maoni ya waandishi tofauti tofauti kuhusu ukuruba wa lugha na kujieleza. Sura ya tatu imfafanua mbinu za utafiti na vifaa vilivyotumika mbali na kueleza jinsi data zilivyochanganuliwa. Hojaji mbili zilihusishwa katika utafiti huu ambapo hojaji ya wanafunzi ilitumika kuthibitisha madai ya walimu waliohojiwa. Sura ya nne imeangazia ufasili wa data pamoja na uchanganuzi wake. Katika sura hii majedwali, grafu na michoro ya pai chati imetumika kuwasilisha data zilizokusanywa nyanjani. Sura ya tano imeshughulikia muhtasari wa matokeo ya utafiti, hitimisho na mapendekezo ya utafiti zaidi.IGNATIUS MUKUNZA KIDAHA Download
180FACTORS AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL POLICIES FOR BASIC EDUCATION FOR ALL IN NOMADIC AREAS: A CASE OF MOYALE SUB-COUNTY, MARSABIT COUNTY.IMPLEMENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL POLICIES FOR BASIC EDUCATIONThis new study examined the factors affecting the implementation of educational policies in nomadic areas of Moyale sub county in the light of Kenya’s domestication of Education for All (EFA) which the government discussed and committed itself at various world conferences. The research investigated different factors that affect the implementation. It looked at the programs geared towards achieving EFA such as Free Primary Education, boarding schools, school feeding programs and bursaries. These and other features of EFA are discussed as they are meant to provide a feasible route for educating nomads. The research used a mixed methods approach to collect data using semi-structured interviews designed for nomadic parents, focus group discussions with education officials and teachers, and a questionnaire for nomadic students in secondary schools. The research instruments were designed to find out the challenges, perceptions, preferences and policies concerning nomadic education from 150 purposively selected individuals comprising interview guides to district Education officers, District officer and parent; Questionnaires and focus group discussion participants’ guides. The findings from the field illustrate how those factors affect the implementations of basic EFA. Informants cited the accessibility to the nearest school, attitude of parents, tribal conflict and low income of the parents among other issues as the inhibiting factors affecting the implementation of formal education in nomadic area. If total participation is required, the main issues arising are the need to change the existing facilities, educating the communities about the need for education and strengthen legislation for compulsory education while on the other hand improving the infrastructure for nomadic people. In this way, education can be provided that respects the nomadic lifestyle. The research concluded by proposing a multifaceted approach to the education of nomads. However, mobile schools with a non-formal curriculum package may be an especially attractive option due to expected suitability in nomadic setting and their relatively low cost, given expected financial constraints. It also recommended that further research be conducted to explore nomadic friendly learning programs before the implementation of any of these recommendations.MARY NASIBO THOMAS Download
181INFLUENCE OF A LEADERSHIP STYLE ON PERFORMANCE OF AN ORGANIZATION: CASE STUDY OF PINNACLE PROJECTS LIMITEDLEADERSHIP STYLE An organization is considered to be effective if it finds a balance between the demands of various stakeholders (owners, employees, customers, community) and the needs of the employees. An appropriate leadership style can influence and ensure the prosperity and the economic growth of both the organization as well as the employees. The aim of this paper was to explore the impact of the dominant leadership style present within Pinnacle Projects Limited (PPL) and its effect on the organization’s performance. This study covered a sample population of 30 employees’ within Pinnacle Projects Ltd and utilized a sampling technique where the entire target population formed the sample size of the study. Primary data was collected using questionnaires as the main data collection tool. Findings were analyzed using spreadsheets and present in the form of table s and charts so as to enable easy understanding of the data. RICHARD KAMAU KURIA Download
182INFLUENCE OF STUDENTS’ ABSENTEEISM ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BUDALANG’I SUB-COUNTY, BUSIA COUNTYSTUDENTS’ ABSENTEEISM The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of students’ absenteeism on academic performance in public secondary schools in Budalang’i Sub-County, Busia County. The study was guided by the following research questions: What are the environmental factors causing school absenteeism? What are the home factors causing school absenteeism? What are the school factors causing school absenteeism? What is the relationship between school absenteeism and academic performance? How can the phenomenon of school absenteeism be curtailed? The study enlisted 113 participants who were randomly sampled and used Descriptive survey design. It established that absenteeism is a critical issue in secondary schools in Budalang’I Sub County. It recommended that parents should be paying school fees on time and make sure that ailing students are taken to hospital and back to school immediately. They should also stop overburdening students with home chores such as cooking, fetching firewood and taking care of animals. They should also follow up the academic matters of their children at school on regular basis. The government should make roads more accessible to schools. It should offer bursaries to needy students from poor backgrounds while guidance and counseling services should be offered to students especially on the importance of attending school regularly. Secondary school education should be made free in order to eliminate the problem of lack of school fees. Schools should strive to have up to date learning facilities like libraries as well as sporting facilities to enhance student retention while ensuring that there is harmony between parents, teachers and students. Schools should also offer lunch to students and sanitary towels to the female students. They should also establish health centres within school compounds to facilitate prompt treatment of minor diseases instead of sending such students home to seek treatment. The day schools should be converted into boarding schools to eliminate the challenges of transportation to and from school. The school management and community should work hand in hand to enforce school attendance and ensure that school rules are not very strict to the students Students should avoid negative influence from peer pressure and carry out circumcision ceremonies when schools are closed. They should also adhere to school rules while class teachers should improve communication with students while ensuring that absentees are disciplined. ADONGO M. FRIDA Download
183The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of students’ absenteeism on academic performance in public secondary schools in Budalang’i Sub-County, Busia County. The study was guided by the following research questions: What are the environmental factors causing school absenteeism? What are the home factors causing school absenteeism? What are the school factors causing school absenteeism? What is the relationship between school absenteeism and academic performance? How can the phenomenon of school absenteeism be curtailed? The study enlisted 113 participants who were randomly sampled and used Descriptive survey design. It established that absenteeism is a critical issue in secondary schools in Budalang’I Sub County. It recommended that parents should be paying school fees on time and make sure that ailing students are taken to hospital and back to school immediately. They should also stop overburdening students with home chores such as cooking, fetching firewood and taking care of animals. They should also follow up the academic matters of their children at school on regular basis. The government should make roads more accessible to schools. It should offer bursaries to needy students from poor backgrounds while guidance and counseling services should be offered to students especially on the importance of attending school regularly. Secondary school education should be made free in order to eliminate the problem of lack of school fees. Schools should strive to have up to date learning facilities like libraries as well as sporting facilities to enhance student retention while ensuring that there is harmony between parents, teachers and students. Schools should also offer lunch to students and sanitary towels to the female students. They should also establish health centres within school compounds to facilitate prompt treatment of minor diseases instead of sending such students home to seek treatment. The day schools should be converted into boarding schools to eliminate the challenges of transportation to and from school. The school management and community should work hand in hand to enforce school attendance and ensure that school rules are not very strict to the students Students should avoid negative influence from peer pressure and carry out circumcision ceremonies when schools are closed. They should also adhere to school rules while class teachers should improve communication with students while ensuring that absentees are disciplined. CLASSROOM MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of classroom motivational strategies on learners’ academic performance: the case of Buuri Location in Meru County. The study was guided by the following objectives; to find out whether classroom motivational strategies are used in Buuri location, to find out how classroom motivational strategies affect learners’ academic performance, to explore how the classroom motivational strategies are implemented in schools within Buuri Location, to analyze the learners’ attitudes towards the classroom motivational strategies. The study was based on the Two Factor theory of motivation by Fredrick Herzberg of 1957 which helped in the analysis of the influence of classroom motivational strategies on the learners’ academic performance. The researcher employed the descriptive survey design, systematic technique to obtain students sample and convenience sampling method for the teachers. The sampled students were 63 while the teachers were 10. Questionnaires were employed as instruments for data collection for both the teachers and the students. The reliability of the study was achieved by computing the consistency of the obtained results using Cronbach’s Alpha. The validity of the instruments was achieved through the assistance of the supervisor. The researcher obtained the research permit from the University’s academic office. The elicited data was coded and processed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and summarized by use of frequencies, distribution tables and percentages. To arrive at a descriptive and meaningful analysis of the results, the processed data was presented by the use of frequency tables, pie charts and bar graphs. The study concluded that the classroom motivational strategies have a vast influence on the learners’ academic performance. The researcher advocates the implementation of the positive classroom motivational strategies that motivate the learners and heighten their academic performance. Furthermore, the study accentuates that the negative classroom motivational strategies should be prohibited because they demotivate the learners and making them achieve poor academic performance. GITIRIKIA MARY KARIMI Download
184INFLUENCE OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LANG’ATA SUB-COUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYAELECTRONIC MEDIA ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE Electronic media has become a major driving force among youth and the society in general that has resorted to using social networking to drive their agenda in all spheres of life. It is in this respect that the study embarked on establishing the influence of electronic media on the academic performance of students’ in private secondary schools in Lang’ata sub-county, Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was guided by the following objectives: To assess the influence of electronic media on students’ class concentration; To determine how the time spent on electronic media influences academic performance in private secondary schools in Lang’ata sub-county, Nairobi County in Kenya; To determine how electronic media influences students’ moral behavior; To assess challenges of electronic media on students’ academic performance; To proffer plausible solutions to challenges of electronic media on students’ academic performance in private secondary schools in Lang’ata sub-county, Nairobi County, in Kenya. The research design adopted by the study was quantitative method. The study sampled 60 participants comprising both students and teachers who were randomly drawn from secondary schools in Lang’ata Sub-County. Questionnaires were used to collect data while Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used to get descriptive statistics. The study established that despite electronic media being a tool that can be used positively in teaching and learning, most students use the media for non-academic matters which are time wasting, distractive and degrades their moral behaviour. The study recommends that schools should put measures in place to control excessive use of the internet in schools. Furthermore internet enabled gadgets should be restricted from getting into schools.STEPHEN WANJALA WANDABUSI Download
185INFLUENCE OF HOME ENVIRONMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KASARANI SUB-COUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYAHOME ENVIRONMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE Parents play a crucial role in the academic affairs of their children. However, sometimes this role is not very evident. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the home environmental factors affecting the academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Kasarani Sub-County, Nairobi County. The study was guided by the following objectives: To determine the influence of parents’ economic status on students’ academic performance; and to establish how parents’ involvement in their children school affairs influences students’ academic. The study was grounded on Social Theory and adopted the descriptive survey design. It enlisted 160 respondents who were sampled through Simple Random Sampling. The study established that most parents of the students under study were poor hence could not afford quality education for their children which was likely to undermine their academic performance. The study also noted that when family income is increased, students’ achievement is also highly likely to increase possibly due to the fact that such families are in a position to provide most of the required necessities to succeed in school. The study also noted that most parents follow up the academic affairs of their children at school which is a predictor of good academic performance of the students as observed by (87.5%) who were in agreement that parental involvement in children’s learning activities influences their level of achievement. There was strong agreement by 100% that close parental supervision and monitoring of student academic progress predisposes them to perform better in school. The study recommended that families should strive to improve their parenting skills by setting rules communicating regularly with schools and setting high aspirations for their children PERTET PRISCILLA Download
186INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL ACADEMIC BACKGROUND ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG DIVISION, KAJIADO COUNTYParental academic backgroundThe purpose of the study was to investigate the Influence of Parental Academic Background on Students’ Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Ngong Division Kajiado County. The study was based on four objectives namely; to find out the influence of parents’ level of education on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ngong Division; to determine the impact of home environment on the students’ academic performance in public secondary school in Ngong Division; to find out how parents being role models for their children’s education affect their academic performance in public secondary schools in Ngong Division; to establish the extent to which parental involvement in school activities of their children influence the students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ngong division. Questionnaires were used to collect data on students’ performance. The population included students, teachers and principals. A total of 88 students (boys and girls) of Form Three and Four of secondary schools were taken as respondents; 15 teachers (males and females) were part of the population and also 3 principals (males and female) were part of the population. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS, MS Excel, and presented using frequency tables, percentages, and figures. The result showed that the parental academic background had greater influence on the academic performance of the students. In addition it was also observed that students from higher educated parents had higher probability of scoring higher than students from less educated parents. It was recommended among others that parents should be involved in the academic life of their children. It was also recommended that there was a need for parents to boost their educational level.JOHN ROBERT Download
187INFLUENCE OF MOTHER TONGUE ON KISWAHILI PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC DAY SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LOITOKITOK SUB-COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTY.INFLUENCE OF MOTHER TONGUE The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of mother tongue on Kiswahili performance in public day secondary schools in Loitokitok Sub-county, Kajiado County. The study was guided by the following objectives: To determine the prevalence of the use of mother tongue; To determine perception of teachers and students on the influence of mother tongue on performance of Kiswahili; To find out the measures to be taken to curb the use of mother tongue in schools; To find out challenges mother tongue bring about to students in the process of learning Kiswahili and to find out strategies that should be used to improve the performance of Kiswahili. The study was underpinned on the Acculturation Theory. The study used quantitative methods approach and adopted survey research design. The study enlisted 90 participants drawn from public day secondary schools in Loitokitok Sub-County, Kajiado County that were selected through stratified, simple random and purposive sampling techniques. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data. The study established that the prevalent of mother tongue in schools in Loitoktok Sub-County is high and is perceived to be negatively affecting the performance of Kiswahili. The study recommends that students should be encouraged to use Kiswahili even when they make mistakes, schools should form Kiswahili clubs, organize frequent Kiswahili debates, take students for tours to Swahili speaking communities, reward best Kiswahili performers while teachers should make teaching Kiswahili more interesting. MENKO C. MORAA Download
188THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND ON STUDENTS’ CAREER CHOICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG DIVISION, KAJIADO COUNTYPARENTAL PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND ON STUDENTS’ CAREER CHOICES The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of parental profession background on career choices among secondary school students in Ngong Division, Kajiado County. The following objectives guided the researcher: to assess the extent to which parental professional background influences the career choice of secondary students; to find out whether students’ subjects of choice suit their aspirations and aptitudes; and to find out whether secondary school students are able to choose their prefered careers independently. This study used a survey design where purposive and simple random samplings were used. The researcher purposively picked out Oloolua secondary school and forms threes and fours. On the other hand, simple random sampling was used to determine the participants for the sample from these two classes. The researcher, through the use of random numbers, selected 30% of students from each identified forms, data were collected through the use of questionnaires. The findings of the study presented the influence of parental professional background on students’ career choices in two perspectives. On the first hand, students who chose careers related to the occupations of their parents did so because their parents were role models in their careers, earned decent salaries and had the financial means to support their children in their career aspirations. On the other hand, those who wanted to pursue entirely different careers stated that their parents’ occupations were demeanering in terms of socio-economic rewards and that they had different career interests and abilities. Students indicated that their subject choices suited their career aspirations and aptitudes, and made their career choices independently. The study recommended that the government should increase funding to public secondary schools so as to create a rich teaching-learning environment where students explore their talents and skills. Education stakeholders should enrich the school environment with activities that bring about self-realization in the life of the learner. Parents should provide their children with spiritual, moral and financial support, and respect the freedom and independence of their children in career decision processes. Lastly, Students should take active part in mentorship, guidance and counseling services, and co-curriculum activities so as to know themselves bette MOFFAT JACKSON MBAMERA Download
189INFLUENCE OF PARENTING ON STUDENT’S BEHAVIOUR IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG SUB-COUNTY KAJIADO COUNTYPARENTING ON STUDENT’S BEHAVIOURThe aim of carrying out this research was to find out the influence of parenting on students’ behavior in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub County. The study was guided by four specific objectives. The first one was to find out If parents as role models to their children contribute to student’s behavior. The second one was to investigate how parental supervisionmonitoring contributes to student’s behaviour. The third one was to establish whether parenting styles affects students behaviour and finally, to find out the extent to which single parenting affects students behaviour in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub County. The study used questionnaire to collect primary data from the respondents. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study revealed that parents failure to be role models to their children contribute to students behaviour. Parents who engages in alcohol and substances abuse impart the same behaviour to their children and the children are likely to engage in deviant acts in school. While parents who do not take drugs serve as role models to their children because children learn a lot from their parents. Therefore, Parents should be role models to their children and find time to discuss behaviour problems with their children. It was also established that inadequate parental supervisionmonitoring affects students behaviour in the sense that when parents do not know where their children are, what they do and whom they mingle with, the children are likely to associate with deviant peers. Therefore, parents should monitor the activities of their children so as to reduce their access to deviant peers. The findings also discovered that single parenting affects students behaviour. Students from single parents have high rate of depression compare to those living with their two parent and are likely to experience teenage pregnancy and school drop out because there is only one parent to support and monitor them. Similarly, majority of the parents used authoritative and authoritarian parenting style and they help student to adapt well in school. The study recommendended the following: Parents should be role models to their children, have time to talk to them about problem behaviour and its effects so as to prevent them from involving in in deviant behaviour.There should be consistent supervision, monitoring and discipline by parents so as to prevent students from involving with deviant peers. Parents should adopt both authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles since they have positive effect on students’ adaptation in school. Guidance and counselling unit should be established in all public secondary schools to help children with behaviour problemNNOHAM UZOCHI ANDREW Download
190IMPACT OF LEARNER MOTIVATION TO THE LEARNING OF LITERATURE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LANG'ATA SUB-COUNTY: NAIROBI COUNTYImpact of learner motivation to the learning of literatureThis study aimed at finding out the impact of learner motivation to the learning of literature in public secondary schools in Lang'ata sub-county: Nairobi County. It has been observed that learner motivation is a need to be attended to in order to enhance the learning of literature in public secondary schools. Therefore, it is imperative to study factors that affect motivation of learners of which self-interest and attitude; teaching methodology; and teaching and learning resources cannot go unmentioned and which this work addressed in particular. To facilitate this research, two public secondary schools were randomly selected and questionnaires were issued to the literature teachers and students. A total of 64 respondents composed of 4 teachers two from each school and 60 students 30 from each school participated. Survey research design was employed. Tables and figures were used to present the analyzed data. From the research, the following were the findings: There is strong self-interest and positive attitude of learners towards literature. This is shown through the graphs and tables where learners reveal their love for literature and take it as their best subject, they like reading many novels and they study literature not because it is compulsory but because they like it. This means that literature would be studied by the majority even when it is made optional. There were few students having negative attitude towards literature. Learner motivation that come with the teaching methodologies such as assignment, group discussion, classroom drama and demonstration were found to be used in the teaching of literature which may have a positive effect when it comes to the learning of literature. However, field trip was less considered in the teaching and learning of literature in the schools. Teaching and learning resources was found to be a contributor to learner motivation and have an impact to the learning of literature. The availability and adequacy of literature textbooks help learners to do their assignments well without disturbance and easy access. However, no much importance was put on the use of television, computers and internet which would motivate learners more and have a positive impact on the learning of literature. The study recommended the following: Students should be motivated and encouraged and make them know that literature is not difficult to study. Teachers should be given workshops and seminars on modern ways of teaching literature that can motivate learners, and put much importance on field trips. Teachers should give a lot of importance on the use of technological resources such as television, computers and make use of available internet in teaching literature because these are resources that are relevant today, hence motivation in learning literature.GODFREY YOHANE KADZUWA Download
191INFLUENCE OF PARENTS’ INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOL MANAGEMENT ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KAKAMEGA COUNTYPARENTS’ INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOL MANAGEMENT This study investigated the influence of parents’ involvement in public secondary school management on students’ academic performance in Kakamega County, Lugari District. Specifically, the study sought to establish the role played by the parents in the management of school finances and students’ discipline; and the influence of this role on the students’ academic performance. Data was collected from four public secondary schools, which were randomly selected. In these schools, teachers and students responded to questionnaires whereas head teachers, parents and members of Parents and Teachers’ Associations were interviewed. The findings were that the parents in Kakamega County have not been involved in the management of school finances, which has led to financial resources constraints and, consequently, impinged on the students’ academic performance. It was also established that nevertheless, the parents have been involved in the management of students’ discipline. It was therefore, concluded that parental involvement in the management of school discipline should be complemented with participation in financial management if good academic performance is to be realised. Subsequently, the study recommends that the managers of the schools in Kakamega County encourage the parents of their students to be involved in the financial management of the schools. MINAYO SNIDER Download
192INFLUENCE OF SCIENTIFIC CALCULATORS ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN GATUNDU NORTH, KIAMBU COUNTYINFLUENCE OF SCIENTIFIC CALCULATORS ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICSCalculators are an important tool for carrying out various calculations in mathematics. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of scientific calculator technology in teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools in Gatundu North, Kiambu. The study was guided by the following objectives: To examine the perception of students towards Mathematics; to explore teachers’ teaching methodology; to establish the resources availability and use and to suggest the best methods of easing teaching and learning of Mathematics. The study adopted quantitative approach and specifically the descriptive survey method. The study sampled 68 participants comprising 66 students and 2 teachers. The researcher’s self-designed questionnaire vetted by supervisors was used to collect data and descriptive analysis such as percentage and frequencies were used to capture the participants’ responses on use of calculators. SPSS software package was employed to aid the analysis. Validity was ensured with the help of the researcher’s supervisors, researcher’s own reflection and peer scrutiny while reliability of instruments was tested through piloting. the study established that most students perceive mathematics to be easy, to have a wide range choice of career choices and that students who spend more time studying Mathematics perform well in the subject and that calculators help students to perform well in Mathematics. The study established that most teachers show students techniques of handling Mathematics questions using calculators. Most teachers are well trained in their profession and had confidence in their area of specialization and they had passed well with good grades at the university and therefore uses varied methods of teaching. Similarly, most of the teachers attend Strengthening of Mathematics and Science Secondary Education Programs (SMASSE) which is an indication of well grounded teachers in science subjects. Most students have calculators that were provided by their parents. Computers, laptops, tablets, phones, projectors and the internet are some of the new and emerging technologies currently being used in the field of Mathematics. The study recommends that students should have a positive attitude towards Mathematics; they should do more exercises, engage themselves in group discussions, and attend Mathematic symposiums and seek regular assistance from teachers.STEPHEN KIMANI Download
193CHALLENGES FACED BY STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KIGOMA REGION, TANZANIAChallenges faced by students in the proces of learning english languageThe purpose of this study was to investigate challenges faced by students in the process of learning English language in Public secondary schools in Kigoma Region, Tanzania. The study used simple descriptive survey research design. The researcher used the quantitative research paradigm. The target population comprised 320 form three students in the sampled Kigoma Region Public Secondary Schools. The findings of this study were the following. Code- mixing: English is mixed much with Kiswahili during English lessons, lack of competent teachers to teach English language lessons. Teachers responsible for teaching English language lessons are not formed to teach it. They teach English due to lack of teachers of English who can teach it, there is also lack of enough books of English in the library for the students to have more exercises and read ahead of their teachers, Kiswahili language is the most competitor of English language in Tanzania; therefore students tend to speak more Kiswahili than English in the school compound and in their classes, all these minimize the proper learning of English language. The study recommended that there is a need for in-service training programs for teachers of English language, which would refresh the teachers and update them with current trends in English language. The Teacher Service Commission should employ more teachers of English and send them to teach English Language in different schools. Language policies in all the schools should be stream lined and measures put in place to address the usage of Kiswahili language and other vernacular languages in the classrooms and the school compound. Schools should establish well stocked library and resources centre. This would solve the challenge of shortage of English books as well as teaching and learning resources. A reading culture should be enhanced in schools by exposing students to reading more novels and set books not necessarily for examination purposes but to improve on their pronunciation of English words and their ultimate performance in English. English teachers should be creative and innovative in their methods of teaching in order to make presentation of English language lessons more appealing and interesting to the learners. ISIDORE MUTUNGU KATABE Download
194Role of Internal control systems toward the effectiveness of internal audit in private universitiesInternal control systemsInternal Audit is the independent examination of and an expression of opinion on the financial statement of an enterprise by an appointed auditor in pursuance of that appointment and in compliance with any relevant statutory obligation within the organization. This project aims at identifying the role of internal control system towards the effectiveness of internal audit in private Universities, a case of Marist International University College. The study exploited information by the help of primary data from questionnaires distributed to the respondents. However, both purposive and simple random sampling was used in sampling. In all five respondents were sampled from the forty (40) respondents under review. The data gathered was analyzed and interpreted by the help of percentages and frequency tables. The study concludes that, control environment is related to the effectiveness of internal audit in private Universities. The effectiveness of internal audit depends on the presence of strategic objectives, integrity and ethics, top management support, as well as clear organization structure. The study also concludes that control activities affect the effectiveness of internal audit in private Universities. The physical control over vulnerable assets signifies there of presence of control activities. Accurate and timely recording of transaction and events ensure control activities. Access restriction to financial and accounting resources and records also indicate control activities. Segregation of duties and proper execution of transaction and events facilitates good control activities. Separate evaluation of internal control enhances the effectiveness of internal audit. It is also concluded that monitoring influences the effectiveness of internal audit in private Universities. Ongoing evaluation by management ensures internal audit effectiveness. External audit also enhances effectiveness of internal audit. Periodic evaluation of internal audit is made in carrying out their regular duties. Monitoring provides assurance that the findings of audits and other reviews are promptly determined while close supervision of internal audit staff may lead to internal audit effectiveness.Manyaga, Godson Download
195Effects of interest rates capping on financial performance of the mortgage firms in Kenya: A case of Housing Finance Company of KenyaInterest rates capping and financial performanceInterest rates play an important role in an economy. The CBK interest rate policy is an important tool in the management of affairs in the mortgage sector of the Kenyan economy that provides housing in the country. Following interest rates capping law in 2014 questions have been raised as to the actual effect of this law in the economy, this study sought to determine the effect of interest rates capping on financial performance of the National housing company. The study adopted a census survey research design targeting secondary data from the financial performance records of the housing finance company from the year 2014 to the year 2019. In addition more data was sought from CMA to facilitate this study. The data was collected from CMA library and Central Bank of Kenya. The data collected was analyzed using ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted at 95% confidence level. The study established a positive correlation between interest rates capping and financial performance of Housing Finance Company. This results were attributed to rise in demand for mortgages however operational efficiency and financial exposure were key concerns for the mortgage lender. The study concludes that the amount of mortgage advanced by mortgage firms would lead to a high financial performance (EBIT) as it raises the revenue thereof. On the other hand, interest rate would positively relate with financial performance till it starts discouraging borrowings owing to increase in the cost of mortgage due to operational inefficiency. The study recommends that the government of Kenya should cap interest rates on mortgages to ensure increase in mortgage uptake and thus improve financial performance of mortgage firms, however, mortgage firms while operating under the interest rates cap should take appropriate measures to reduce cost of mortgage borrowing, and increase demand for mortgages to improve their financial performance. Further studies should be conducted on the effect of a free interest regime on financial performance of mortgage firms given that the interest rates capping law has now been lifted for us to understand both sides of the coin.ROSE GESARE OMBAKI Download
196 Influence Of Selected Social Media Platforms On Teaching-Learning Process Within Lare Sub-County Secondary Schools, Nakuru County.Selected Social Media Platforms On Teaching-Learning Process This work targeted to find out how social media can at times affect teaching and learning within secondary schools located in Lare Sub-County of Nakuru County. The researcher had a short experience of students and teachers using and misusing cell phones within the area. After consulting people and available reading materials, the researcher did not find any work that focused specifically on the area of study of this project. The platforms that were considered are WhatsApp, YouTube, Facebook and short messaging services. Five teaching and learning methods also featured. These are library research, classroom presentation, lecture, use of resource person, and field trips. The independent variable were social media accessibility and usage while the dependent variables were preferences for selected teaching and learning methods. A total of two hundred questionnaires from teachers and students were collected and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences. In addition data was collected using sixteen short interviews. Random sampling method was used to pick the respondents. This was basic research that adopted a mixed method paradigm. Some objectives like determining the attitude of respondents towards social media employed quantitative method. Qualitative inquiry was employed, for example, in determining the extent to which teaching-learning inputs and outputs can be attributed to social media. Studies similar to but not exactly this have been carried elsewhere in the past but they did not provide a clear picture of how social media is affecting Lare Sub-County secondary schools’ teaching-learning process today. The findings of the research showed that teachers and learners generally have a positive attitude towards social media but are finding it a challenge to use social media platforms in teaching and learning.GERALD KARIUKI KAMAU Download
197INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON KCSE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NYAMIRA SOUTH SUBCOUNTY, NYAMIRA COUNTY; KENYASOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON KCSE PERFORMANCEThis study investigated the influence of socioeconomic status on KCSE performance in public secondary schools in Nyamira South Sub-county, Nyamira County. Specifically, the study sought to establish the influence of socio-economic status on performance of students, the relationship between SES and performance and what can be done to improve performance. Data was collected from four public secondary schools which were randomly selected. In these schools, principals, teachers and students responded to a questionnaire. The research was guided by the theory of organization in which the school was viewed as a system. The tenet of holism and reductionism was used. However, in the view of holism, it was difficult to administer it fully because of the limitations of this study and therefore all school elements were not involved as it was limited to students and teachers. The findings were that the parent’s level of education did not influence the student’s academic performance. However the role of parental involvement in child’s education was found to have a great influence on student’s academic performance. It was found that financial resources influenced the performance of students greatly. Financial support influenced student’s performance greatly as parents who would not pay school fees on time and give their childrenMANYISA DISMAS MOKUNYO Download
198ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN PHYSICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MBOONI DIVISION, MAKUENI COUNTYTHE INFLUENCE OF TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCEThe purpose of this Study was to establish the influence of Teaching and Learning Resources on the Academic Performance of Students in Physics in Secondary Schools in Mbooni Division, Makueni County. The Study sampled 64 respondents using both random and purposive sampling method. The study established that most Teachers have little experience in teaching Physics having taught for only 0-3 years. This could negatively undermine effective teaching of Physics. Generally, Physics resources were found to be inadequate in terms of laboratories, equipment, textbooks and library resources while teaching and learning resources are rarely updated and this implies that the Schools are using outdated teaching materials. Both Teachers and Students revealed that Physics Practical classes are normally conducted in groups of 7-8 Students. However, most of the Physics Teachers have physics syllabus and they make use of them. The study therefore recommends that school administration, Parents and Government should build more laboratories and adequately equip them with up to date equipment and facilities. Adequate and up to date Physics textbooks should be provided including trained Physics Teachers while laboratory equipment should be taken care of to ensure they last and serve Students for many years. Libraries should be equipped with adequate, relevant and up to date reading materials to be able to support teaching and learning in Secondary Schools while adequate time should be allocated for Physics lessons to give Students ample time to practice. Lastly, Small groups should be encouraged when conducting Physics practical sessions.MWANZIA NANCY MWENDE Download
199INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN IMPROVING TEACHING AND LEARNING IN MARIST SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGOINFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN IMPROVING TEACHING AND LEARNING This research assessed the level of Information and Communication Technology in improving teaching and learning in the Marist Secondary Schools of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of the study was to shade light on the way ICT is being implemented and how this is used to improve teaching and learning. The study examined the perception of principals, teachers and students about ICT in teaching and learning, the skills and knowledge of ICT among the target population and its use in improving teaching and learning. While identifying the ICT tools used by the target population, it also identified the challenge faced by ICT adoption and possible solutions to solve them. Six research questions were used to guide the study and three hypotheses were formulated and tested. It also adopted Rogers’ diffusion theory of innovation and the TPACK theory developed by Koehler and Mishra. In a descriptive study, the use of a convergent parallel mixed method was adopted to conduct the study. The target population included 7000 students, 367 teachers, seven principals selected from the seven Marist secondary schools in DRC and the coordinator for the Bureau for Marist Schools; from which a sample of 378 students, 50 teachers, the seven principals and the coordinator of the Marist school were selected to participate in the study. To select a representative sample of participants the study used the stratified, systematic random and purposive sampling techniques. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview guide and observation check list. An adequate consultation of expert and peers as well as the Cronbach alpha test was used to insure the validity and reliability of the instruments. Data was analysed using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The study revealed that principals, teachers and students have a positive perception of ICT adoption in improving teaching and learning. Principals had good skills to huddle office work by ICT tools but teachers were poorly skilled and students were familiar with ICT tools but not fully using them for learning purposes. ICT infrastructure were adequate but limited to office work, making insufficient and poor utilisation of ICT tools to be among the challenges facing ICT adoption in MSS, alongside unreliable electricity, lack of training for teachers and poor guidance of students in ICT use. The study also established younger and highly qualified teachers had better skills in ICT and male students were more skilled than female. But teachers who had poor skills in ICT were more positive that ICT adoption can improve teaching and learning. It has recommended to MSS to have a common ICT strategic plan, acquire ICT tools for teachers and students and train its teachers in acquiring ICT skills to gain confidence in using the available tools and the others which will be acquired in the classroom.Br. SAFARI KABWIKA RICHARD Download
200INFLUENCE OF TEACHING METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NGONG SUB-COUNTY KAJIADO COUNTYTEACHING METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS Geography teachers play an important role of imparting geographical knowledge and practical skills to students. Their teaching methods are therefore critical in determining whether the students excel in Geography or not. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the influence of teaching methods in Geography on students’ academic performance. The study was guided by the following objectives: influence of group work teaching method on students’ academic performance in geography in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County; to investigate the role of active participation teaching method on students’ academic performance in Geography in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County; To find out the influence of animation teaching method on Geography students’ academic performance in Geography in Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County; To explore the influence of demonstration teaching method on students’ academic performance in Geographys Ngong Sub-County, Kajiado County. The study adopted descriptive survey design in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the research problem. The target population was 479 from where a sample of 155 was drawn. The sample was drawn from 3 schools sampled from three zones that represented Ngong Sub-County. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data. Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 was used to get descriptive statistics. The study established that teaching methods affect academic performance of students in Geography. The most popular teaching methods applied in the schools under study were both active participation and a combination of a variety of methods which were found to be more effective in enhancing teaching of geography and learners’ positive outcome. Active Participation method was the most preferred method of teaching among teachers Group work method was also a popular method. However, most teachers rarely uses animation method despite its immense benefits to the learners. The study recommends that the school administration should enhance classroom supervision to ensure that teachers effectively deliver geography content using appropriate methods.   NOBRERT NDILON Download
201INFLUENCE OF THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN DAGORETTI SOUTH CONSTITUENCY, NAIROBI COUNTYLEARNING ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCELearning environment is very important in determining learners’ outcome. Unfortunately, learners are faced with a myriad of challenges some of them directly related to the learning environment. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the influence of learning environment on students’ academic performance. The study was guided by the following objectives: To determine the extent to which physical classroom environment affects student’s academic performance in Dagoretti South Constituency; To establish how learning resources affects student’s academic performance in Dagoretti South Constituency; To establish how school library influence student’s academic performance; To find out the relationship between academic performance and student’s academic performance in Dagoretti South Constituency. The study adopted survey design to help in assessing people’s attitudes, beliefs, feelings, behaviors and lives. The study sampled 76 respondents comprising of 6 teachers and 70 students. However, 62 respondents managed to participate. Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 was used to get descriptive statistics while data from open ended questions was analyzed using thematic analysis. The study revealed that generally, most schools had adequate physical facilities to facilitate teaching and learning. However, classes were not adequate to accommodate all the students and the libraries did not have adequate resources. The study recommends that the school administrators, the government, parents and students should strive to ensure that the school environment is optimized for effective teaching and learning. NJUAKOM AUGUSTINE Download
202INFLUENCE OF SINGLE MOTHERHOOD ON SECONDARY SCHOOL TEENAGERS’ DELINQUENCY IN LANG’ATA SUB- COUNTY, KENYA: PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL INTERVENTIONINFLUENCE OF SINGLE MOTHERHOOD ON TEENAGERSA well-functioning family structure is very important in creating responsible teenagers in the society. It is anticipated that children who experience parental separation are on the average worse off socially than their peers in intact families. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of single motherhood on secondary school teenagers’ delinquency in Lang’ata Sub-County, Kenya. The study was guided by the following objectives: To examine the relationship between teenage anti-social behavior and single mother parenting style in Lang’ata Sub County, Kenya, particularly in terms of addiction to drugs, theft, truancy and aggressiveness. In addition, the study explored psycho-spiritual interventions that could be used to address the problem of delinquency among teenagers from single motherhood in Lang’ata Sub County, Kenya. The study is informed by two theories namely: Attachment Theory and Structural Family Theory. The reviewed literature demonstrated that teenagers from single mother families are susceptible to anti-social behaviour such as drug abuse, truancy, stealing and aggression. The study adopted a quantitative survey research design. The target population was 352 participants drawn from secondary schools in Lang’ata Sub-County. A sample of 107 respondents was recruited comprising of 101 students and 6 teachers. Descriptive statistics based on frequencies, percentage and calculating the mean average and standard deviation with help of SPSS version 21 was used to conduct the data analysis. In addition, Pearson correlational statistics was used to explore if there were significance influence of single mothers parenting style on teenagers’ anti-social behaviour. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between teenagers’ anti-social behaviour and single mothers’ parenting style. Specifically, the findings for single mothers’ influence on teenagers’ tendency to abuse drugs presented an r= 0.208 at p<0.05 indicating a positive correlation. Equally, the findings for the influence of single mothers on teenagers’ school absenteeism reflect an r = .270 at p <0.05 indicating that there is a significant correlation of single mothers’ influence on teenagers’ experience of truancy. In addition, the findings revealed that single mothers parenting style impact on teenagers’ theft behaviour as the results portrayed an r =.107 as against the recommended threshold of p <0.05. The findings for single mothers influence on teenagers’ behaviour of aggressiveness presents an r = .0.65 against the recommended threshold of p <0.05 indicating that teenagers’ exhibition of aggressive behaviours are influenced by single mother parenting style. Furthermore, the findings for the role of psycho-spiritual therapy in assisting teenagers who exhibit anti-social behaviour portrayed an r = .411 at p < 0.000, which implies that psycho-spiritual counsellors are needed in the treatment of teenagers’ delinquency. These findings have implications for single mothers who ought to be vigilant by offering close supervision to their teenage children in order to guide them from making unnecessary mistakes in life and as such avoid developing anti-social behaviours. The ministry of education should also establish support programs aimed at assisting teenagers from engaging in illicit behaviour. Similarly, school administrators and teachers should pay special attention to teenagers from single mother families and provide them with ample opportunity to share their feelings without being judged negatively by others. The study also recommends that the services of psycho-spiritual counselors should be enlisted in offering help to teenagers including single mothers.MOSES KAWA Download
203 EFFECTS OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES ON STUDENTS’ DISCIPLINE IN SCHOOLS IN KIKUYU SUB-COUNTY, KIAMBU COUNTY EFFECTS OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES ON STUDENTS’ DISCIPLINE The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of co-curricular activities on students’ discipline in Kikuyu Sub-County, Kiambu County. It was guided by these research questions: How does participation in co-curricular activities influence how learners use their leisure time? Do co-curricular activities contribute to character formation of learners? and Does participation in co-curricular activities affect learners’ teamwork spirit in Kikuyu Sub-county, Kiambu County? The study adopted descriptive survey design. It targeted a population of all students and teachers in public secondary schools in Kikuyu from where the sample of 105 was drawn. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the quantitative data. The study established that most students were frequently participating in sports which they considered a healthy way of using their leisure time. The co-curricular activities were found to help learners develop self-esteem, self-control, teamwork, good behaviour, healthy competition and self-socialization. Similarly, it was found to help learners avoid negative behavior such as premarital sexual behavior, negative peer influence and drug abuse. Instead, such learners were found to develop self-esteem, self-control, good behaviour, healthy competition and self-socialization. The study recommended that schools should allocate adequate time for co-curricular activities while the Ministry of Education should allocate adequate budgets for co-curricular activities. ANN NJOKI NJIRU Download
204THE INTEGRATION OF TEACHING RESOURCES IN ENHANCING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF HISTORY IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN NZAUI SUB-COUNTY IN MAKUENI COUNTYINTEGRATION OF TEACHING RESOURCES IN ENHANCING TEACHING AND LEARNING Education is a fundamental human right, and a key input in production and development of an economy. This explains why countries worldwide plan for and increase budgetary allocations to fund various educational programs each financial year. There is however concern on the quality of education offered and performance of students in national examinations. The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of teaching resources in enhancing the teaching and learning of history in public schools in Nzaui sub-county, Makueni County. To find out how teachers of history utilized various instructional resources. It also focuses on availability of instructional resources for teaching history in some Public Schools of Nzaui Sub-county in Makueni County; will be chosen as the location of the study because it has the highest number of schools in the Sub-county. Four objectives were formulated to guide the study. The researcher will sample eight teachers from each school who will be teaching history. The total population will be 150 students in form four and form three from Public Schools in Nzaui Sub-county and eight teachers. The instruments used for the data collection will be questionnaires and interview guide. Two questionnaires will be used, one for teachers and the other one for students. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version; the analyzed data is then presented using frequency tables, means, percentages, pie charts and bar graphs. The data will be analyzed using descriptive statistics, mainly frequencies, charts and percentages. VERONICA MWENDE MUTHOKA Download
205Factors Influencing Use Of Geography Instructional Resources In Teaching And Learning Geography In Public Secondary Schools In Karachuonyo West DivisionFactors Influencing Use Of Geography Instructional Resources The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing use of Geography instructional resources in teaching and learning Geography in Public Secondary Schools in Karachuonyo West Division. It was guided by the following research questions; what are the factors affecting the use of instructional resources in the teaching of Geography? What are the instructional resources needed in the teaching and learning of Geography in public secondary schools? What suggestions are there to improve on the use of instructional resources in public secondary schools? The study engaged descriptive cross-sectional survey design. The design used since it enabled the researcher collects data across the sampled population using the same instruments at the same time. The targeted population of the study was 206 respondents from 5 selected public secondary schools. However, the study sample size was 50 respondents which comprises of 5 school principals, 1 DQASO, 14 Teachers and 30 students. The independent variables are students’ attitudes, attitude, access or instructional knowledge, time and technical support. Dependent variable was instructional resources used in teaching and learning Geography. Data was collected using questionnaires and interview guide respondents were; School principals, Teachers and Students. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version software was used to analyse descriptive and quantitative data. The findings of the study were that the attitude of teachers and students toward teaching and learning Geography affect teaching style in such a way that it brings out difference in student outcome in terms of academic performance in Geography. Also, they help the learner to acquire and strengthen skills in reading, observing, listening and communicating. The technical support such as use of computer in teaching geography has improved new visualization techniques which inter improved teaching techniques and this enhance academic performance among student in different types of secondary schools in Karachuonyo West Division. The study further revealed that teaching and learning resources such as text books, maps and diagrams, magazines were frequently used while internet and radios were rarely used secondary schools in Karachuonyo West Division and this has improved performance in Geography. The study recommended that teachers should be involved in the development of the resources to be used in Geography curriculum. This enhances the utilization of the available resources as teachers feel that they are part of the curriculum formulation. Secondly, secondary school principals should assist teachers in the facilitation of field studies to break monotony of class room teaching. A Field study outside classroom enhances learning outside the class room; reduce of the number of topics to be covered in Geography hence proper utilization of the available resources. secondary schools in Karachuonyo West Division should also adopt the use of computer aided technology for effective delivery of Geography as this enhance understanding of Geography among students and provision of teaching and learning resources to enhance effective implementation of Geography curriculum. LAVENDER ODHIAMBO Download
206The effects of asset liability management (ALM) on performance of commercial banks in KenyaAsset-liability management--Commercial banks in KenyaThis research sought to establish the effects of asset liability management in commercial banks in Kenya. It is well known that banking sector plays a major role in the country's economic development. The mangers strive to maintain the balance between asset and liability which is important when making concrete decisions in financial institutions. The researcher used 10 banks which represented 23% of the target population. This target population was arrived at through use of stratified sampling technique, where the banks were grouped into three categories; large, medium and small. Therefore, the researcher used various determinant of the ALM to show its significance and effects in commercial banks in Kenya. The determinants include bank size, leverage ratio, and Liquidity risk and banks capital base. Secondary data from ten commercial banks was collected. This was achieved by comparing a data set from financial statement of commercial banks within a period of 5 years. Specifically the researcher sought to establish the effects of bank size, leverage, liquidity risk and banks’ capital base on the performance of the commercial banks in Kenya. Data was analyzed using a Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and MS-Excel. The study utilized stratified survey research design. Descriptive, correlation and regression methods of data analysis were used to analyze techniques. From the findings obtained from the adjusted R squared, based on the study showed a variation of performance of commercial banks in Kenya due to variations in assets and liabilities. The research revealed that asset liability management influence performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study too revealed that there was a strong positive relationship between asset liability management and performance of commercial banks. There is need for commercial banks to use asset liability management tools so as to be safe during financial crises and increase their profitability regardless of prevailing economic challenges.ALEXANDER KYALO MUTETI Download
207ROLE OF CRE IN THE MORAL FORMATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN DAGORRETI SUB- COUNTY, NAIROBI COUNTYChristian Religious education and moral formation of studentsABSTRACT The moral standing and general conduct of the Kenyan secondary school student in the wider society has been dropping in the recent past. The morals of the secondary school graduates in colleges and society do not reflect the acquisition and practice of values learnt through Christian Religious Education (CRE). This study will therefore, be designed to assess the role of CRE in the transmission of moral formation to the learners in secondary schools. The objectives of the study will be: to establish the effectiveness of secondary school CRE syllabus in the transmission of moral formation to learners; to find out how moral beliefs of CRE students are expressed in their behavior; to establish the methods that CRE teachers use to transmit moral formation to secondary school students; and to establish the views of both teachers and students concerning the role of CRE subject in the development of moral formation in secondary schools. The study will be guided by two theories; elaboration likelihood theory of persuasion that explains how attitudes are formed and changed and Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning. The study will use descriptive survey design. The study will be conducted in Nairobi Sub-county in Nairobi County in Kenya. The target population for the study will be the 28 secondary schools in Nairobi Sub-county. The eligible respondents will include 56 CRE teachers, 28 heads of discipline and 1180 Form III students in the 28 secondary schools making a total of 1264 possible respondents. Simple random sampling will be used to select the 142 respondents who will participate in the study. Information will be collected by use of self-administered questionnaires and face-to-face interview. The data will be analyzed using frequency distribution tables, percentages, and bar graphs. KASEMBI PERIS MUTETHYA Download
210AN INVESTIGATION OF THE CHALLENGES FACING SMALL-SCALE WOMEN ENTERPRISES IN NGONG TOWN, KAJIADO NORTH SUB-COUNTY, KENYACHALLENGES FACING SMALL-SCALE WOMEN ENTERPRISESThe purpose of this study was to examine the non-financial challenges faced by women in SMEs in Ngong Town, Kajiado North Sub-County, Kenya. Qualitative research approach was applied in the study and the interviewing method was used to collect relevant data from the participants. The interview was used to collect in-depth responses from participants regarding the research question, what non-financial challenges do women in SMEs in Kajiado town face? A sample of five women in SMEs was selected. The responses show that apart from financial constraints, women in SMEs face the challenge of discrimination, harassment by town/city council officials, multiple responsibilities, and competition from mini-supermarkets. The study recommends policy initiatives to resolve the challenges faced by women in small and medium business enterprises. PINTO AGISO ANNET Download
209Analysis of challenges encountered in teaching and learning of integrated English in public secondary schools in Nairobi countychallenges encountered in teaching and learning of integrated EnglishThis study analysed the challenges encountered in teaching and learning integrated English in selected Public secondary schools in Nairobi County. The research objectives were; to examine and establish the effects of techniques (skills) of teaching Integrated English; the role of instructional resources; the teachers and learner's attitude and the effects of teaching methodology in teaching and learning of integrated English. The target population involved form one and two students, teachers and heads of department of English. The researcher used cluster sampling and systematic random sampling in the study. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data. The information obtained was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to arrive at frequencies and percentages presented in form of tables, graphs and charts. The findings from the study reveal that there are no varieties of teaching techniques; there was inadequate resources for teaching; methods for teaching integrated English were inadequately applied; there was confusion and insufficient knowledge in using techniques, methods and resources; some pupils have negative attitude towards learning English; the teachers of English found integrated approach a problem due to different areas of interest. The study recommended that the administration and ministry of Education should provide enough teaching resources such as integrated English texts books, well- equipped library in schools; the ministry of Education to provide in-service training of teachers of English on the use of integrated approach and update on the techniques and methods used in teaching English. Finally, teachers of English should motivate pupils on the importance of learning and speaking English in schools.NDUNG’U SERAH NJERI(SR.) Download
211EFFECTS OF COVID-19 ON THE GAP BETWEEN THE RICH AND POOR PEOPLE, A CASE OF KAWANGWARE INFORMAL SETTLEMENT, NAIROBI CITY COUNTYEFFECTS OF COVID-19 ON THE GAP BETWEEN THE RICH AND POOR PEOPLESince late 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has spread quickly and widely across the globe has had profound repercussions on livelihoods. In most nations, the global economic decline induced by the pandemic, as well as the spread of the epidemic itself, has intensified existing socioeconomic disparities. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Covid-19 on the gap between the rich and poor people in Kawangware informal settlement, Nairobi City County. Specific objectives guiding the study included; to examine the effects Covid-19 on the livelihood of the rich and poor people, to assess the effects of Covid-19 on health services accessibility between the rich and the poor to find out how Covid-19 has impacted education attainment between the rich and the poor and to determine the strategies put in place to mitigate the impact of Covid-19 between the rich and the poor in Kawangware informal settlement, Nairobi City County. The study was underpinned on two theories namely; Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) Epidemiological Models and Conflict theory. Descriptive research survey was used by the researcher because allows collection of data from a large population in time. The design had the potential to obtain information that describes the existing phenomena well. A sample of 80 respondents was randomly chosen and included in the study. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. The study found out thatcovid-19 has widened the livelihood gap between the rich and the poor; covid19 has perpetuated health disparity between the rich and the poor in terms of access to healthcare services. Covid-19 has disadvantaged the poor who cannot access and afford online learning. Youth empowerment as a strategy can be used to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor during the covid-19 pandemic era. The study recommended socioeconomic empowerment, introduction of mobile clinics and expanding of online learning as some of the strategies to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor in Kawangware informal settlements.JOSEPH MBURU NYAGA Download
212CHALLENGES OF STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION IN SOCIAL SECURITY INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF NSSFStrategy implementation in social security institutionsThe current study is an assessment of challenges of strategy implementation social security institutions a case study of National Social Security Fund. The study adopted a descriptive case study research design. The population of the study was 1660 employees of NSSF. Sampling targeted 10.4 percent of the total population of employees. Stratified random sampling was used to select the 173 employees from three strata namely, top management, middle management and junior officers. The study adopted a descriptive case study research design. Data was analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics and inferential analysis. Specifically, means, frequencies and percentages were used. Factor Analysis and Correlation analysis was used to extract the relevant factors and their relationship with strategy implementation. The findings presented in tables, figures and graphs. Findings indicated that the organization leadership at NSSF is not effective and this may have led to poor strategy implementation. The culture at NSSF was not conducive for strategy implementation and this may have led to poor strategy implementation. The organization structure at NSSF was inconsistent with strategy implementation and this may have led to poor strategy implementation. The management of organization resources at NSSF is not effective and this may have led to poor strategy implementation. The organization politics at NSSF are not conducive for strategy implementation and this may have contributed to the poor implementation of strategy.SHARON KIRIMI KINYA Download
213EFFECT OF CASH FLOW MANAGEMENT ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA. A CASE STUDY OF KENYA COMMERCIAL BANK.CASH FLOW MANAGEMENT Numerous studies by various scholars have tried to establish a correlation between cashflows and profit in firms. There are those that believe that the more there is cash flow, the more the likelihood that a firm will make a profit. There are also those that refute this claim. This study report focuses on establishing this link between cash flows and profitability in a firm. The research is conducted on Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB). KCB is among the best performing financial institutions in East Africa and serves as an excellent object of focus as such. It aims at finding out the role of investment cash flow and operating cost cash flow in determining the profitability of an institution. The objectives of this study are: to find out the extent that operating cash flow affect the financial performance of KCB and to determine the impact of finance cash flow on the financial performance of KCB. One of the theories in play is the Keynesian theory which stipulates the reasons as to why companies hold cash. Another theory employed is the free cash flow theory which relates surplus cash after investment and financial performance. The main assumption of this study is that the data and the conclusions arrived at for KCB reflects on all other commercial institutions. The study utilizes a descriptive research design. Secondary sources of data have been utilized to gain data for the analysis of the performance of KCB. Data collected reflects a period of five years from 2016 to 2020, a time frame sufficient to draw adequate conclusions from the data. Lastly, a compelling conclusion arrived at based on the data reflects the standing of the position of the report on the relationship between profitability and cash flow in an institution. Recommendations to address the shortcomings of the findings serve to guide any researcher in terms of areas that need further research. MALIONGO ELECTINE ASHIAMA Download
214THE EFFECTS OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON CAREER CHOICES AMONG PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KAJIADO NORTH SUB COUNTY, KAJIADO COUNTY, KENYAFAMILY BACKGROUND ON CAREER CHOICES This study examined the effects of family background on career choice among public secondary school students in Kajiado North Sub County, Kajiado County. The study was guided by the following objectives: To determine the extent to which the socio-economic status of the parents influence the career choice of students in secondary schools, to examine the relationship between the level of education of parents and the career choice of students in secondary school, to explore how the personality of the student affects the choice of career of secondary school students, to find out if the size of the family influences the choice of career of secondary school students. The study was guided by the Social Learning Theory. The sampling technique used to select the 10 schools was purposive sampling. In each school, simple random sampling was used to select respondents out of the enrolled form three students. A sample of 84 students was drawn from 10 schools in Kajiado North, Kajiado county. Questionnaires were used as the instruments for data collection. Simple tables were used to present the analysed data. Results from the study showed that family background factors influence the career choices of students in Kajiado North. These factors include the parents’ level of education, the family size, the personality and the socio-economic status of the family. The study recommended that parents should take time to discuss with children different career choices. It also recommends that parents should not persuade their children to take careers that they do not want because their values and expectations influence the career choice to a more significant extent.PAULINE SABINA ONYANGO Download
215INFLUENCE OF DRUG ABUSE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN LANGATA SUB COUNTY NAIROBI COUNTY IN KENYADRUG ABUSE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE Drug abuse has become a major challenge among the youth worldwide. The accessibility, affordability and consumption of abused drugs by the youth have attracted a great concern among the stakeholders in the education sector. Problems which are created by its uncontrolled use cannot be ignored. Evidence from around the world reveals that there is an upward trend in the abuse of drugs amongst the young people. There is limited documented data on the impact of abuse of drugs on academic execution. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of drug abuse on students’ academic performance in Langat a sub-County Nairobi County. The study was guided by the following objectives: To establish causes of drug abuse on students in Langat a sub county Nairobi county, to explore the extent in which students abuse drugs in Langat a sub county Nairobi county, to examine the effects of drug abuse on students’ academic performance in Langat a sub county Nairobi county. The researcher adopted descriptive survey design. The target population constituted of 46 public secondary schools, 46 principals, 212 teachers, 318 form 3 students. Random sampling was used to select the desired respondents that were 3 principals, 80 form 3 students 7 teachers. The study used questionnaires as instruments of data collection which was valid. The data collected was analyzed through statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) the response rate was 100% where the findings showed that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in our schools. Guidance and counselling and banning smoking in secondary schools were captured as mitigating factors. The study recommended School administrators should come up with guiding and counselling team so that they can guide students’ things like how to control peer pressure effects of drug abuse, Parents or guardians should accept responsibility to ensure that the student attends school and that school staff are notified of behaviour change and absences, Parents or guardians should not give students a lot of pocket to the students. When students are given excess money they may end up buying drugs, serious war should be declared against those making the drugs available to students and strict measures should be taken against the sellers of prohibited drugs so as to clamp down their activities across the country among others. LUMUNYENYI SHAMALA PETER Download
216INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL CULTURE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE AT KENYA CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION (KCSE) IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS TURBO SUB -COUNTY, UASIN GISHU COUNTY, KENYA.SCHOOL CULTURE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE Performance in secondary schools in Turbo sub county in the past years has been on decline. The stakeholders have been on the run to establish the causes of such performance. Therefore, the current study is in the line of digging deeper to understand the real cause of students not performing well in their studies. The aim for the study was to find out the effects of different types of cultures carried out in different school on students’ performance in KCSE examinations in Turbo sub county Uasin Gishu County. For the effectiveness of the study, the following objectives guided the study. These objectives are: To assess forms of organizational culture practiced in secondary schools in Turbo Sub- County Uasin- Gishu County; To examine the effects of prize giving for good academic performance to students in Turbo Sub- County Uasin- Gishu County; To investigate the extent to which school vision, mission and values influence students’ performance in KCSE examinations in Turbo Sub-County, Uasin- Gishu county; To investigate the effects of school norms and rituals on students’ performance in Turbo sub county Uasin Gishu county. The study adopted descriptive survey design and was guided by Scheim 1996 and Trompenar’s 1998 theories on school organizational culture. Target population was 12 secondary schools and the sample size used was 3 secondary schools with three school principals, 24 teachers and 180 form four students. Each one of the sample size represented 30% of the total target population according to the Mugenda and Mugenda’s (2003) observations of sample size being 30% of total population if the target population is less than 1000. The split half techniques and Spearman order rank technique correlation coefficient was used to establish the reliability. Quantitative data organization was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Majority of the schools practiced organizational culture, more specifically students having access to the academic materials and teachers together with students being emotional stability. At the same time no single school was practicing dictatorship in discharging their duties. On the question about motivation, it was observed that almost all schools were not motivating both teachers and students. This was therefore contributing to poor performance amongst students in the schools under study. At the same time on the school mission, vision and values the researcher observed that all schools were practicing it. And lastly, school norms and routines are of big impact on student’s activeness and presence in school. School games and P.E makes most students active and also maintains their performance in class. MOSES ETSABO HOSEA Download
217INVESTIGATION ON FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO VOILENT CONFLICT OF PASTORALISTS COMMUNITIES IN MARSABIT COUNTY, KENYAINVESTIGATION ON FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO VOILENT CONFLICT OF PASTORALISTS COMMUNITIES In Marsabit County, pastoralist‟s conflict is not something unusual but a perennial issue. The purpose of the study was specifically set to find out causes of conflicts among the pastoralist communities in Marsabit. The study explored how factors like scarce natural resources, proliferation of fire arms, culture and local politics ignite conflicts among pastoral communities of Marsabit; namely between the Gabra and the Borana communities. The research objectives was; to establish the influence of natural resources on conflicts in Marsabit, to determine influence of porous border on conflicts, to establish ways in which culture influence conflicts and to determine how local politics influence conflicts between the Gabra and the Borana communities in Marsabit County. A descriptive survey was adopted to collect information, summarizes, present and interpret for clarification purposes, and this enabled investigation into the subject under study. For the purpose of this study respondents were drawn from two divisions (Gadhamoji and Turbi) with a total population of over 15,000. A location from each was selected through simple strata and random selection since both of the conflicting group, that is the Gabra and Borana live in the selected divisions and locations. Simple strata was helpful as it ensures inclusion in the sample of sub group which otherwise was to be omitted entirely by other sampling methods because of small numbers in the population. A sample size of 384 was considered for the study and random probability procedures were used to select the sample size and sampling procedures. The advantage of this random method was that every member of the population stood an equal chance of being picked, Mugenda & Mugenda (2003). A questionnaire and interview guide was used to get data from herders, politicians and village elders. The researcher used both the qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and presented in form of percentages and frequencies while qualitative data was analysed narratively based on various study themes, the findings were; majority of the respondents indicated that lack of enough resources over which pastoralists compete prompt them to fight. Easy access of legally condemned weapons has also been intensifying pastoralists standoff. Conservative cultural practices where successful warriors are praised and rewarded have been scaling pastoralists conflict. Struggle for political supremacy was identified to have been increasing magnitude of pastoralists conflict. The study concluded that competition over limited natural resources as major cause of pastoralists conflict, where easy flow of weapons through physically porous border, culture praise and reward warriors and struggle for political supremacy also identified as factors that scale up rate of pastoralists‟ conflict in Marsabit. The study recommends for sharing of available resources, proper manning of country‟s borders to control arms flow, community elders to own peace initiatives with noble aim to unite different ethnic groups, and politicians to avoid inflammatory remarks. The study suggest for further study to be conducted on other causes of pastoralists conflict.AMINA EDIN KALLA. Download
218SOCIAL-CULTURAL PRACTICES AND GENDER BASED VIOLENCE AMONG YOUNG WOMEN IN KERICHO.SOCIAL-CULTURAL PRACTICES AND GENDER BASED VIOLENCE The purpose of this study was to investigate social-cultural practices and gender based violence among young women in Kericho County; To describe the socio-cultural practices among Kipsingis women in Kericho; To assess the presence and extent of gender-based violence among Kipsingis women in Kericho; To identify the socio-cultural practices that promote gender-based violence among young women; To suggest strategies of addressing Gender Based Violence among young women. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The target population was 1300. The sample size comprised of 10 teachers, 10 parents, and 20 students. The study established that socio-cultural factors have impact on effect of gender-based violence on agricultural livelihood activities of women. It is recommended that eradication of structural inequality against women through promotion of equal access to opportunities, assets, resources and rights. SHARON.C.LANGAT Download
219AN ANALYSIS OF THE CHALLENGES FACED BY STUDENT TEACHERS FROM HIGHER INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING DURING TEACHING PRACTICE, A CASE OF MARIST INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, KAREN NAIROBI KENYAChallenges faced by student teachers during teaching practiceABSTRACT Teaching practice is one of the main aspect of teacher trainee, during teaching practice a teacher is given an opportunity to put in practice what they have learnt. However, student teachers encounter various challenges during teaching practice. The study investigated, the challenges faced by Marist International University College student teachers during teaching practice, focusing on the fourth year students of (2019- 2020) academic year. The research questions that guided this study were what are the school environmental challenges during teaching practice exercise? What are the supervisory challenges during the teaching practice exercise? What are the challenges associated with instructional materials during teaching practice exercise? What are the challenges associated with classroom management during teaching practice exercise? The sample of the study comprised a hundred and six Student teachers who have successfully finished their teaching practice at Marist international University College, focusing on fourth year students and eight teachers from the schools the student teachers always go for teaching practice. The study further used the survey design which included the student teachers. It used the simple random sampling technique where questionnaires were prepared to gather information from the student teachers. The researcher analyzed the collected data based on the responses which were gathered. Tables and pie charts were used to present the collected data through the use of SPSS software version 21. Some of the challenges were environmental, supervisory challenges, classroom management and challenges associated with instructional materials. The study therefore recommends that student teachers should be involved in programs such as mentorship to empower them in their career as well as preparing them to the field of teaching. RODAH JELANGAT Download
220The Impact Of Parental Involvement In Children’s Academic Performance In Public Secondary Schools In Ngong- Sub County- Kajiado KenyaImpact of Parental Involvement In Children’s Academic PerformanceTHE ABSTRACT This study examined the impact of parental involvement in their children’s academic performance. Parents are an important component in the education of their children. However, some parents tend to neglect their roles and leave it to the teachers. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to find out the level of parents’ involvement and its effect on their children academic performance in public secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County Kenya. The study was guided by the following objectives: to find out the level of parents’ involvement in students’ academic learning process; to establish whether home environment affect academic performance of children and to find out the effects of parental involvement in the academic performance of children. The study was informed by the Epstein theory that explains how parental involvement affects child’s academic performance. The research design adopted by the study was descriptive survey design that used questionnaires to gather data. The study enlisted 121 respondents comprising 3 teachers and 118 students drawn from Ngong Sub-County. This study established that most parents were actively involved in their children’s school activities which was important in improving students’ academic performance by putting efforts to check their children’s academic work, following up the academic progress of their children by going for progressive reports and helping teachers to discipline their children and by giving them enough time to study at home. The study also established that most students came from homes with conducive environment for study and had parents. The study noted that most parents were mindful about their children in terms of motivating them, providing school materials, paying school fees on time as a way of supporting their children’s learning. The study recommended the government authorities should make policies that ensure there is collaboration between parents, teachers and students as a way of addressing education sector holistically while parents should strive to provide the required necessities for their children to ensure that they are comfortable and ready to learn. Students should make efforts to concentrate on their education and liaise with parents and teachers whenever there are issues that need to be addressed while teachers should be approachable to students to make it possible for them to share their grievances. Teachers should work in tandem with parents and students to enhance studies.ELIA BAULENI MADIMBA Download
221EFFECTS OF STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIP ON THE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NGONG-SUB COUNTY-KAJIADO COUNTY, KENYATeacher-student relationshipsABSTRACT Teacher-student relationship plays a vital role in the learning and teaching process. Very often students who perceive student-teacher relationship in a negative way tend to perform much poorly compared to those who look at relationships between teacher-student from a positive angle. Therefore, this prompted the researcher to carry out a study on the effects of positive teachersstudent relationships on the student academic performance of students in secondary schools in Ngong Sub-County, Nairobi County. The study was guided by the following objectives: to find out the level of communication between teachers and students in class, to examine the perception of students and teachers towards their relationship and to establish the extent to which student-teacher motivation influence academic performance. The study used descriptive survey design and adopted the quantitative approach. Three secondary schools were sampled in this study with a total sample size of 120 students, 6 teachers. Respondents were selected using simple random sampling method and purposive sample method for teachers. Questionnaires were used to collect data and statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze quantitative data. Both teachers and students expressed that there is a positive relationship between teachers and students. The findings revealed that students perform positively in academics due to good level of communication between teachers and students, good perception of teachers and students towards their relationship and student-teacher motivation towards academics. Basing on the findings the researcher made recommendations which include: awareness to the school authorities about the importance of teachers establishing good and healthy relationships with their students by the Kenyan government through her ministry of education. Both public and private schools should organize seminars concerning the importance for teachers to develop good and health relationship with students and its effects on the academic performance. Student leaders should frequently remind their fellow students about the importance of establishing good relationship with teachers.CELESTINO NGONJO Download
222INFLUENCE OF THE USE OF FACEBOOK AND WHATSAPP ON THE COMMUNITY LIFE OF RELIGIOUS IN THE CATHOLIC DIOCESE OF DAPAONG –TOGOSocial media and community life among religious people in togoThis Research was on the Influence of the Use of Facebook and WhatsApp on the Community Life of the Religious in the Catholic Diocese of Dapaong –Togo. The study adopted the Embedded mixed methods research design. The objectives of this study are: to determine the implications of Facebook usage on the spiritual life of the Religious in the community, to ascertain the Effects of WhatsApp usage on the social life of the Religious in the community, to discuss the challenges of social media usage in the community; and to identify ways of establishing authentic community life among the Religious. The target population was the religious men and women in Dapaong Diocese including Sisters, Brothers and Priests giving 142 people. The sample size determination adopted the Yamane’ formula. The sample size was 105 of which 82 were through questionnaire and 23 for interview using simple random sampling method techniques. The data collection was done through a questionnaire, and semi-structured interview. The analysis of the results was done in relation to the research objectives. For quantitative questions, the researcher used frequencies, tables and diagrams. Quantitative data was analyzed effectively using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0. The qualitative data was drawn from the interview guides. The interview was presented in narrative form using the research objective themes. The findings indicated that the Religious use Facebook and WhatsApp and spend more time on the social media though they never miss community prayer due to social media. Facebook and WhatsApp had a positive impact on the social life of the religious. Its challenging effects is that it encouraged individualism, isolation and lack of face-to-face conversations as many tend to engage more on their phones. The community recreation time was affected too. The challenge of using Facebook and WhatsApp is on limiting the use but this can be managed by community prayer, spiritual direction, recollections, retreats, silent time and counselling to balance the use of social media. YARG SALYA MOYGUEBATE JOSEPH Download

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